A handbook of chemical technology. ed., with additions, by W. Crookes

9781232180708: A handbook of chemical technology. ed., with additions, by W. Crookes
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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1872 Excerpt: ...ferment is undoubtedly yeast, but the ferment may be either an organic substance (yeast) or a protein body in a putrescent state--it is always a nitrogenised body. In a technological work the varieties of fermentation may be classed as--1. Vinous or alcoholic fermentation, including the changes observed during the processes of wine-making, beer-brewing, and the production of alcoholic liquors or spirits. 2. Lactic acid fermentation, taking place during the souring of milk; and at a higher temperature changing to 3. Butyric acid fermentation. To these fermentations may be added--4. Putrescence, noticeable only in technological chemistry as a stage to be most carefully avoided, vinooi Pennrat«uon. Vinous or alcoholic fermentation is the result of the decomposition of saccharine matter, dextrose or glucose, levulose or chylariose, and lactose into several products, principally alcohol and carbonic acid. According to the recent researches of Lermer and Von Liebig (1870) dextrine in the presence of sugar is converted into equal parts of alcohol and carbonic acid. This will be seen from the following table, which gives the result for 100 parts by weight:--Alcohol. Carbonic Acid. Crystallised dextrose, C6HI407, 4640-f-4440 = 9086. Anhydrous dextrose, CeHI206, 51' 10 + 48-c;0 = ioo'oo Cane-sugar, CuHjjOn, 53'8o-f-5i"46 = 10526. Starch-meal. C6HI0Oj, 5678 + 5432 = mio. x mol. dextrose,C6HI206 = x8o, gives TM£ SolSfcO, ZU 180 Recently Pasteur has shown that lactic acid does not result from alcoholic fermentation, but that succinic acid is a constant product of this fermentation in quantities never less than 06 to 07 per cent of the weight of the sugar employed. Glycerine is another constant production to the extent of 3 per cent of the sugar; this subs...

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