Clouds and cloud systems and their interactions with larger scales of motion, radiation, and the Earth’s surface are extremely important parts of weather and climate systems. Their treatment in weather forecast and climate models is a significant source of errors and uncertainty. As computer power increases, it is beginning to be possible to explicitly resolve cloud and precipitation processes in these models, presenting opportunities for improving precipitation forecasts and larger-scale phenomena such as tropical cyclones which depend critically on cloud and precipitation physics.
This book by Professor Shouting Gao of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics in Beijing and Xiaofan Li of NOAA’s National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Services (NESDIS) presents an update and review of results of high-resolution, mostly two-dimensional models of clouds and precipitation and their interactions with larger scales of motion and the Earth’s surface. It provides a thorough description of cloud and precipitation physics, including basic governing equations and related physics, such as phase changes of water, radiation and mixing. Model results are compared with observations from the 1992-93 Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) experiment. The importance of the ocean to tropical convective systems is clearly shown here in the numerical results of simulations with their air-sea coupled modeling system. While the focus is on tropical convection, the methodology and applicability can be extended to cloud and precipitation processes elsewhere.
The results described in this well-written book form a solid foundation for future high-resolution model weather forecasts and climate simulations that resolve clouds explicitly in three dimensions―a future that has great promise for the understanding and prediction of weather and climate for the great benefit of society.
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This book examines cloud-resolving modeling of tropical convective processes and summarizes modeling results during TOGA COARE since 1992. The book introduces the framework of cloud-resolving model, methodologies for analysis of modeling outputs, and validation of simulations with observations. The book details important scientific findings in the aspects of surface rainfall processes, precipitation efficiency, dynamic and thermodynamic processes associated with tropical convection, diurnal variations, radiative and cloud microphysical processes associated with development of cloud clusters, air-sea coupling on convective scales, climate equilibrium states, and remote sensing applications. The book will be beneficial to graduate students and researchers in cloud, mesoscale and global modeling.
Shouting Gao is a professor at the Laboratory of Cloud-Precipitation Physics and Severe Storm, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. He has a doctorate and a master's degree in meteorology from the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing, China.
Xiaofan Li is a physical scientist at the Center for Satellite Applications, National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Services, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Camp Springs, Maryland. He has a doctorate in meteorology from the University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu and a master's degree in meteorology from Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China.
About the Author:
Shouting Gao: 1968-B.S. Nanjing Institute of Meteorology, China; 1981-M.S. Chinese University of Science and Technology, China; 1988-Ph.D. Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; from 1990 to 1992, a Postdoc at the University of Dundee, UK; from 1992 to 1995, a visiting scientist at the University of Oklahoma, USA; since 1996, a professor at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
Xiaofan Li: 1982-B.S. Nanjing Institute of Meteorology, China; 1985-M.S. Nanjing Institute of Meteorology, China; 1993-Ph.D. University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA; 1993-1994, Assistant Researcher, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA; 1994-2001, Contract Research Scientist, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA; from 2001-present, Physical Scientist, NOAA/NESDIS/Office of Research and Applications, Camp Springs, Maryland, USA.
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