21st Century Shark Digest: NOAA Research and Conservation Programs, Science and Species Data, Shark Attacks

 
9781422006108: 21st Century Shark Digest: NOAA Research and Conservation Programs, Science and Species Data, Shark Attacks

This is an up-to-date and comprehensive compendium of information from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) about sharks and ongoing research and conservation efforts. NOAA Fisheries is committed to conserving shark populations. Most sharks are vulnerable to overfishing because they are long-lived, take many years to mature, and only have a few young at a time. Recovery from overfishing can take years or decades for many shark species. Therefore, sharks need conservation and NOAA Fisheries is conducting research, implementing restrictions and working with fisherman domestically, and pursuing international conservation. These steps will ensure that those shark populations that are healthy remain so and those shark populations that are overfished recover. Shark Management - The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act requires overfished shark stocks to be rebuilt and requires healthy shark populations to be maintained.Many shark stocks, particularly in the Atlantic, are overfished and must be rebuilt. Nationally, the United States recently enacted a ban on shark finning that prohibits any person under U.S. jurisdiction from engaging in shark finning and possessing shark fins harvested on board a U.S. fishing vessel without the corresponding carcasses. Finning is defined as the practice of removing the fin(s) from a shark and discarding the remainder of the shark at sea.The United States is a conservation leader internationally and was a key player in developing the Food and Agriculture Organization's International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks. Shark Science - NOAA Fisheries conducts shark research on a periodic basis to determine the abundance of shark species. The data collected by scientists in these research programs provide fishery managers with critical information they need to monitor shark populations and implement fishery regulations to maintain population levels. Shark Species - Common Human Encounters - Experts caution sea-goers to beware of sharks 6 feet or longer due to the damage they can cause to humans in a single bite. Among the species that grow to this size and have been known to attack humans are bull sharks, tiger sharks and great white sharks. However, these are not the predominant shark species that a person is likely to come across in the surf zone at the beach in the United States. In fact, about 90 percent of human-shark encounters are with smaller species of sharks not normally implicated in fatal attacks. One challenge in identifying sharks that attack humans is that people don’t always get a good look at the shark in the water. Even if they do, they usually do not know what kind of shark it was. Often, experts use the bite pattern to determine the responsible species and are sometimes able to extract teeth samples from the bite area, which helps identify the species. Contents include: Shark Management * Shark Science * Shark Habitat * Observer Programs * Shark Species and Common Human Encounters * Facts about Sharks * Frequently Asked Questions about Sharks * Reducing the Risk of Shark Attacks * Final US National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks * Field Guide to the Sharks Commonly Caught in Commercial Fisheries of the Southeastern United States * Shark Anatomy * Shark Tagging Program * Age and Growth in Sharks * How to Distinguish Male and Female Sharks * Shark Research * Guide for Complying with the Regulations for Atlantic Tunas, Swordfish, Sharks, and Billfish

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