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Alexander, leaving Egypt in 331 BC, marched eastward into Mesopotamia and again defeated Darius, at the Battle of Gaugamul. Darius once more fled the field, and Alexander chased him as far as Arbela. Gaugamul was the final and decisive encounter between the two. Darius fled over the mountains to Ecbatan (modern Hamedan), while Alexander captured Babylon. From Babylon, Alexander went to Susa, one of the Achaemenid capitals, and captured and looted its legendary treasury. He sent the bulk of his army to the Persian ceremonial capital of Persepolis via the Royal Road. Alexander himself took selected troops on the direct route to the city. He had to storm the pass of the Persian Gates (in the modern Zagros Mountains) which had been blocked by a Persian army under Ariobarzanes and then hurried to Persepolis before its garrison could loot the treasury. On entering Persepolis, Alexander allowed his troops to loot the city for several days. Alexander stayed in Persepolis for five months. During his stay a fire broke out in the eastern palace of Xerxes and spread to the rest of the city. Alexander then chased Darius, first into Media, and then Parthia. The Persian king no longer controlled his own destiny, and was taken prisoner by Bessus, his Bactrian satrap and kinsman. As Alexander approached, Bessus had his men fatally stab the Great King and then declared himself Darius' successor as Artaxerxes V, before retreating into Central Asia to launch a guerilla campaign against Alexander. Alexander buried Darius' remains next to his Achaemenid predecessors in a regal funeral. He claimed that, while dying, Darius had named him as his successor to the Achaemenid throne. The Achaemenid Empire is normally considered to have fallen with Darius. Alexander viewed Bessus as a usurper and set out to defeat him. This campaign, initially against Bessus, turned into a grand tour of central Asia.
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Ahmad Shahvary, son of Ali (1890-1953), son of Morad Sultan Hamedani (1840-1911), was born on March 28 1945, in Tehran, Iran. His Mother was Hayat Sultan Bayat (1907-1980), daughter of Agha Mirza Bayat. He got his B.A. in Economics in 1970 and his Master in Political Science in 1974, and his MBA in 2005. He served as a career diplomat from 1976 to 2003, when he retired. Education: B.A. in Economics, National University of Iran, Tehran (1970) M. Sc. in Political Science, Social and Political Faculty, Tehran, Iran (1974) M. A. in Business Administration, Sejong-Syracuse Joint Program, Sejong University, Seoul, South Korea (2005) Military Service: In 1970-1971, he Performed his military as Lieutenant in Supply Department of then 2nd Army in Iran. Professions: 1970-1971 Performance of Military Duties. 1973-1974 Economic Expert of the Kampsax Consulting Inc., Iran-Denmark Joint Venture Entity. 1974 M & O Expert in Organization of Administrative Affairs and Recruitment of Iran, a State Organization. 1975-2003 In 1975 he joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Iran and served in the ministry and abroad: As 2nd Secretary in London, from 1979-1982; As 2nd Counselor in Brussels, from 1989 to 1992; As 1st Counselor in Mumbai, India, from 1997 to 2000; As 1st Counselor in Dhaka, in 2001 Skills: His main profession is research and preparing analytic reports on financial, social, historic, economic, and Iran’s literature subjects. For his list of literary works please refer to: http://www.ahmadshahvary.com
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