## First Course in the Theory of Equations

### Leonard E. Dickson Ph. D.

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The theory of equations is not only a necessity in the subsequent mathematical courses and their applications, but furnishes an illuminating sequel to geometry, algebra and analytic geometry. Moreover, it develops anew and in greater detail various fundamental ideas of calculus for the simple, but important, case of polynomials. The theory of equations therefore affords a useful supplement to differential calculus whether taken subsequently or simultaneously. It was to meet the numerous needs of the student in regard to his earlier and future mathematical courses that the present book was planned with great care and after wide consultation. It differs essentially from the author’s Elementary Theory of Equations, both in regard to omissions and additions, and since it is addressed to younger students and may be used parallel with a course in differential calculus. Simpler and more detailed proofs are now employed. The exercises are simpler, more numerous, of greater variety, and involve more practical applications. This book throws important light on various elementary topics. For example, an alert student of geometry who has learned how to bisect any angle is apt to ask if every angle can be trisected with ruler and compasses and if not, why not. After learning how to construct regular polygons of 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 10 sides, he will be inquisitive about the missing ones of 7 and 9 sides. The teacher will be in a comfortable position if he knows the facts and what is involved in the simplest discussion to date of these questions, as given in Chapter III. Other chapters throw needed light on various topics of algebra. In particular, the theory of graphs is presented in Chapter V in a more scientific and practical manner than was possible in algebra and analytic geometry. There is developed a method of computing a real root of an equation with minimum labor and with certainty as to the accuracy of all the decimals obtained. We first find by Horner’s method successive transformed equations whose number is half of the desired number of significant figures of the root. The final equation is reduced to a linear equation by applying to the constant term the correction computed from the omitted terms of the second and higher degrees, and the work is completed by abridged division. The method combines speed with control of accuracy. Newton’s method, which is presented from both the graphical and the numerical standpoints, has the advantage of being applicable also to equations which are not algebraic; it is applied in detail to various such equations. In order to locate or isolate the real roots of an equation we may employ a graph, provided it be constructed scientifically, or the theorems of Descartes, Sturm, and Budan, which are usually neither stated, nor proved, correctly. The long chapter on determinants is independent of the earlier chapters. The theory of a general system of linear equations is here presented also from the standpoint of matrices. For valuable suggestions made after reading the preliminary manuscript of this book, the author is greatly indebted to Professor Bussey of the University of Minnesota, Professor Roever of Washington University, Professor Kempner of the University of Illinois, and Professor Young of the University of Chicago. The revised manuscript was much improved after it was read critically by Professor Curtiss of Northwestern University. The author’s thanks are due also to Professor Dresden of the University of Wisconsin for various useful suggestions on the proof-sheets.

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Leonard Eugene Dickson (1874 – 1954) was an American mathematician. He was one of the first American researchers in abstract algebra, in particular the theory of finite fields and classical groups, and is also remembered for a three-volume history of number theory, History of the Theory of Numbers. Dickson considered himself a Texan by virtue of having grown up in Cleburne, where his father was a banker, merchant, and real estate investor. He attended the University of Texas at Austin, where George Bruce Halsted encouraged his study of mathematics. Dickson earned a B.S. in 1893 and an M.S. in 1894, under Halsted's supervision. Dickson first specialised in Halsted's own specialty, geometry. Both the University of Chicago and Harvard University welcomed Dickson as a Ph.D. student, and Dickson initially accepted Harvard's offer, but chose to attend Chicago instead. In 1896, when he was only 22 years of age, he was awarded Chicago's first doctorate in mathematics, for a dissertation titled The Analytic Representation of Substitutions on a Power of a Prime Number of Letters with a Discussion of the Linear Group, supervised by E. H. Moore. Dickson then went to Leipzig and Paris to study under Sophus Lie and Camille Jordan, respectively. On returning to the USA, he became an instructor at the University of California. In 1899 and at the extraordinarily young age of 25, Dickson was appointed associate professor at the University of Texas. Chicago countered by offering him a position in 1900, and he spent the balance of his career there. At Chicago, he supervised 53 Ph.D. theses; his most accomplished student was probably A. A. Albert. He was a visiting professor at the University of California in 1914, 1918, and 1922. In 1939, he returned to Texas to retire. Dickson was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1913, and was also a member of the American Philosophical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the London Mathematical Society, the French Academy of Sciences and the Union of Czech Mathematicians and Physicists. Dickson was the first recipient of a prize created in 1924 by The American Association for the Advancement of Science, for his work on the arithmetics of algebras. Harvard (1936) and Princeton (1941) awarded him honorary doctorates.

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Book Description Createspace Independent Publishing Platform, 2014. Paperback. Condition: New. Abridged edition. Language: English . Brand New Book ***** Print on Demand *****. The theory of equations is not only a necessity in the subsequent mathematical courses and their applications, but furnishes an illuminating sequel to geometry, algebra and analytic geometry. Moreover, it develops anew and in greater detail various fundamental ideas of calculus for the simple, but important, case of polynomials. The theory of equations therefore affords a useful supplement to differential calculus whether taken subsequently or simultaneously. It was to meet the numerous needs of the student in regard to his earlier and future mathematical courses that the present book was planned with great care and after wide consultation. It differs essentially from the author s Elementary Theory of Equations, both in regard to omissions and additions, and since it is addressed to younger students and may be used parallel with a course in differential calculus. Simpler and more detailed proofs are now employed. The exercises are simpler, more numerous, of greater variety, and involve more practical applications. This book throws important light on various elementary topics. For example, an alert student of geometry who has learned how to bisect any angle is apt to ask if every angle can be trisected with ruler and compasses and if not, why not. After learning how to construct regular polygons of 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 10 sides, he will be inquisitive about the missing ones of 7 and 9 sides. The teacher will be in a comfortable position if he knows the facts and what is involved in the simplest discussion to date of these questions, as given in Chapter III. Other chapters throw needed light on various topics of algebra. In particular, the theory of graphs is presented in Chapter V in a more scientific and practical manner than was possible in algebra and analytic geometry. There is developed a method of computing a real root of an equation with minimum labor and with certainty as to the accuracy of all the decimals obtained. We first find by Horner s method successive transformed equations whose number is half of the desired number of significant figures of the root. The final equation is reduced to a linear equation by applying to the constant term the correction computed from the omitted terms of the second and higher degrees, and the work is completed by abridged division. The method combines speed with control of accuracy. Newton s method, which is presented from both the graphical and the numerical standpoints, has the advantage of being applicable also to equations which are not algebraic; it is applied in detail to various such equations. In order to locate or isolate the real roots of an equation we may employ a graph, provided it be constructed scientifically, or the theorems of Descartes, Sturm, and Budan, which are usually neither stated, nor proved, correctly. The long chapter on determinants is independent of the earlier chapters. The theory of a general system of linear equations is here presented also from the standpoint of matrices. For valuable suggestions made after reading the preliminary manuscript of this book, the author is greatly indebted to Professor Bussey of the University of Minnesota, Professor Roever of Washington University, Professor Kempner of the University of Illinois, and Professor Young of the University of Chicago. The revised manuscript was much improved after it was read critically by Professor Curtiss of Northwestern University. The author s thanks are due also to Professor Dresden of the University of Wisconsin for various useful suggestions on the proof-sheets. Seller Inventory # APC9781505487503

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Book Description Createspace Independent Publishing Platform, 2014. Paperback. Condition: New. Abridged edition. Language: English . Brand New Book ***** Print on Demand *****.The theory of equations is not only a necessity in the subsequent mathematical courses and their applications, but furnishes an illuminating sequel to geometry, algebra and analytic geometry. Moreover, it develops anew and in greater detail various fundamental ideas of calculus for the simple, but important, case of polynomials. The theory of equations therefore affords a useful supplement to differential calculus whether taken subsequently or simultaneously. It was to meet the numerous needs of the student in regard to his earlier and future mathematical courses that the present book was planned with great care and after wide consultation. It differs essentially from the author s Elementary Theory of Equations, both in regard to omissions and additions, and since it is addressed to younger students and may be used parallel with a course in differential calculus. Simpler and more detailed proofs are now employed. The exercises are simpler, more numerous, of greater variety, and involve more practical applications. This book throws important light on various elementary topics. For example, an alert student of geometry who has learned how to bisect any angle is apt to ask if every angle can be trisected with ruler and compasses and if not, why not. After learning how to construct regular polygons of 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 10 sides, he will be inquisitive about the missing ones of 7 and 9 sides. The teacher will be in a comfortable position if he knows the facts and what is involved in the simplest discussion to date of these questions, as given in Chapter III. Other chapters throw needed light on various topics of algebra. In particular, the theory of graphs is presented in Chapter V in a more scientific and practical manner than was possible in algebra and analytic geometry. There is developed a method of computing a real root of an equation with minimum labor and with certainty as to the accuracy of all the decimals obtained. We first find by Horner s method successive transformed equations whose number is half of the desired number of significant figures of the root. The final equation is reduced to a linear equation by applying to the constant term the correction computed from the omitted terms of the second and higher degrees, and the work is completed by abridged division. The method combines speed with control of accuracy. Newton s method, which is presented from both the graphical and the numerical standpoints, has the advantage of being applicable also to equations which are not algebraic; it is applied in detail to various such equations. In order to locate or isolate the real roots of an equation we may employ a graph, provided it be constructed scientifically, or the theorems of Descartes, Sturm, and Budan, which are usually neither stated, nor proved, correctly. The long chapter on determinants is independent of the earlier chapters. The theory of a general system of linear equations is here presented also from the standpoint of matrices. For valuable suggestions made after reading the preliminary manuscript of this book, the author is greatly indebted to Professor Bussey of the University of Minnesota, Professor Roever of Washington University, Professor Kempner of the University of Illinois, and Professor Young of the University of Chicago. The revised manuscript was much improved after it was read critically by Professor Curtiss of Northwestern University. The author s thanks are due also to Professor Dresden of the University of Wisconsin for various useful suggestions on the proof-sheets. Seller Inventory # APC9781505487503

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Book Description CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. Paperback. Condition: New. This item is printed on demand. 198 pages. Dimensions: 11.0in. x 8.5in. x 0.5in.The theory of equations is not only a necessity in the subsequent mathematical courses and their applications, but furnishes an illuminating sequel to geometry, algebra and analytic geometry. Moreover, it develops anew and in greater detail various fundamental ideas of calculus for the simple, but important, case of polynomials. The theory of equations therefore affords a useful supplement to differential calculus whether taken subsequently or simultaneously. It was to meet the numerous needs of the student in regard to his earlier and future mathematical courses that the present book was planned with great care and after wide consultation. It differs essentially from the authors Elementary Theory of Equations, both in regard to omissions and additions, and since it is addressed to younger students and may be used parallel with a course in differential calculus. Simpler and more detailed proofs are now employed. The exercises are simpler, more numerous, of greater variety, and involve more practical applications. This book throws important light on various elementary topics. For example, an alert student of geometry who has learned how to bisect any angle is apt to ask if every angle can be trisected with ruler and compasses and if not, why not. After learning how to construct regular polygons of 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 10 sides, he will be inquisitive about the missing ones of 7 and 9 sides. The teacher will be in a comfortable position if he knows the facts and what is involved in the simplest discussion to date of these questions, as given in Chapter III. Other chapters throw needed light on various topics of algebra. In particular, the theory of graphs is presented in Chapter V in a more scientific and practical manner than was possible in algebra and analytic geometry. There is developed a method of computing a real root of an equation with minimum labor and with certainty as to the accuracy of all the decimals obtained. We first find by Horners method successive transformed equations whose number is half of the desired number of significant figures of the root. The final equation is reduced to a linear equation by applying to the constant term the correction computed from the omitted terms of the second and higher degrees, and the work is completed by abridged division. The method combines speed with control of accuracy. Newtons method, which is presented from both the graphical and the numerical standpoints, has the advantage of being applicable also to equations which are not algebraic; it is applied in detail to various such equations. In order to locate or isolate the real roots of an equation we may employ a graph, provided it be constructed scientifically, or the theorems of Descartes, Sturm, and Budan, which are usually neither stated, nor proved, correctly. The long chapter on determinants is independent of the earlier chapters. The theory of a general system of linear equations is here presented also from the standpoint of matrices. For valuable suggestions made after reading the preliminary manuscript of this book, the author is greatly indebted to Professor Bussey of the University of Minnesota, Professor Roever of Washington University, Professor Kempner of the University of Illinois, and Professor Young of the University of Chicago. The revised manuscript was much improved after it was read critically by Professor Curtiss of Northwestern University. The authors thanks are due also to Professor Dresden of the University of Wisconsin for various useful suggestions on the proof-sheets. This item ships from La Vergne,TN. Paperback. Seller Inventory # 9781505487503

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