Avicenna On Treating the Visual Organs from the Canon of Medicine Volume 2

 
9781567448481: Avicenna On Treating the Visual Organs from the Canon of Medicine Volume 2

Avicenna prescribes drugs for the visual organs. The list of just some of the properties of healing or harmful drugs for the visual organs appears on the front cover: Preserving the healthy condition of the eyes; Preventing descending of the humours; Producing tears; Removing: blood spots from the eyes; blue spots from the eyes; green spots from the eyes; harmful hair from the eyes; motes from the eyes; white spots from the eyes; Strengthening eyesight; Treating: benign growth of the conjunctiva (pterygium); blocked tear ducts (fistula lachrymalis); cataracts; chronic conjunctivitis; constriction of the eye; excessive tear production (epiphora); falling of eyelashes; hot conjunctivitis; inflammation of the eye s cornea; inflammation of the eyelid(tarsitis); itching of the eyes; protrusion of an internal organ out of its normal place (iridoptosis and eye wounds); protrusion of the eyes; thickness of the cornea; trachoma; ulcers of the eyes; white eye secretion.

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About the Author:

Abu 'Ali al-Husayn ibn Sina is better known in Europe by the Latinized name Avicenna. He is probably the most significant philosopher in the Islamic tradition and arguably the most influential philosopher of the pre-modern era. Born in Afshana near Bukhara in Central Asia in about 980, he is best known as a polymath, as a physician whose major work the Canon (al-Qanun fi'l-Tibb) continued to be taught as a medical textbook in Europe and in the Islamic world until the early modern period, and as a philosopher whose major summa the Cure (al-Shifa') had a decisive impact upon European scholasticism and especially upon Thomas Aquinas (d. 1274). Primarily a metaphysical philosopher of being who was concerned with understanding the self s existence in this world in relation to its contingency, Ibn Sina s philosophy is an attempt to construct a coherent and comprehensive system that accords with the religious exigencies of Muslim culture. As such, he may be considered to be the first major Islamic philosopher. The philosophical space that he articulates for God as the Necessary Existence lays the foundation for his theories of the soul, intellect and cosmos. Furthermore, he articulated a development in the philosophical enterprise in classical Islam away from the apologetic concerns for establishing the relationship between religion and philosophy towards an attempt to make philosophical sense of key religious doctrines and even analyse and interpret the Qur an. Recent studies have attempted to locate him within the Aristotelian and Neoplatonic traditions. His relationship with the latter is ambivalent: although accepting some keys aspects such as an emanationist cosmology, he rejected Neoplatonic epistemology and the theory of the pre-existent soul. However, his metaphysics owes much to the Amonnian synthesis of the later commentators on Aristotle and discussions in legal theory and kalam on meaning, signification and being. Apart from philosophy, Avicenna s other contributions lie in the fields of medicine, the natural sciences, musical theory, and mathematics. In the Islamic sciences ('ulum), he wrote a series of short commentaries on selected Qur anic verses and chapters that reveal a trained philosopher s hermeneutical method and attempt to come to terms with revelation. He also wrote some literary allegories about whose philosophical value recent scholarship is vehemently at odds. His influence in medieval Europe spread through the translations of his works first undertaken in Spain. In the Islamic world, his impact was immediate and led to what Michot has called la pandémie avicennienne. When al-Ghazali  led the theological attack upon the heresies of the philosophers, he singled out Avicenna, and a generation later when the Shahrastani gave an account of the doctrines of the philosophers of Islam, he relied upon the work of Avicenna, whose metaphysics he later attempted to refute in his Struggling against the Philosophers (Musari'at al-falasifa). Avicennan metaphysics became the foundation for discussions of Islamic philosophy and philosophical theology. In the early modern period in Iran, his metaphysical positions began to be displayed by a creative modification that they underwent due to the thinkers of the school of Isfahan, in particular Mulla Sadra (d. 1641).
-- Rizvi, Sajjad H. "Avicenna (Ibn Sina)" Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (January 2006)

Review:

The [five volume] Arabic text of the Canon of Medicine (Qanun fil tibb or Law of Natural Healing) was translated into Latin as Canon medicinae by Gerard of Cremona in the 12th century and into Hebrew in 1279. Henceforth the Canon served as the chief guide to medical science in the West and is said to have influenced Leonardo da Vinci. Its encyclopaedic content, its systematic arrangement and philosophical plan soon worked its way into a position of pre-eminence in the medical literature of Europe, displacing the works of Galen and becoming the textbook for medical education in the schools of Europe. The text was read in the medical schools at Montpellier and Leuven as late as 1650, and Arnold C. Klebs described it as one of the most significant intellectual phenomena of all times. In the words of Dr. William Osler, the Qanun has remained a medical bible for a longer time than any other work. The first three books of the Latin Canon were printed in 1472, and a complete edition appeared in 1473. The 1491 Hebrew edition is the first appearance of a medical treatise in Hebrew and the only one produced during the 15th century. Inductive logic: This text contributed to the development of inductive logic, which it used to develop the idea of a syndrome in the diagnosis of specific diseases. The Canon of Medicine was the first to describe the methods of agreement, difference and concomitant variation that are critical to inductive logic and the scientific method. --enotes, The Canon of Medicine, Wikipedia, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License

Clinical pharmacology: The emphasis of the Canon on tested medicines laid the foundations for an experimental approach to pharmacology. The Canon laid out the following rules and principles for testing the effectiveness of new drugs and medications, which still form the basis of clinical pharmacology and modern clinical trials. "The drug must be free from any extraneous accidental quality." "It must be used on a simple, not a composite, disease." "The drug must be tested with two contrary types of diseases, because sometimes a drug cures one disease by its essential qualities and another by its accidental ones." "The quality of the drug must correspond to the strength of the disease. For example, there are some drugs whose heat is less than the coldness of certain diseases, so that they would have no effect on them." "The time of action must be observed, so that essence and accident are not confused." "The effect of the drug must be seen to occur constantly or in many cases, for if this did not happen, it was an accidental effect." "The experimentation must be done with the human body, for testing a drug on a lion or a horse might not prove anything about its effect on man." The Canon lists 800 tested drugs, including plant and mineral substances, with comments on their application and effectiveness. For each one, he described their pharmaceutical actions from a range of 22 possibilities (including resolution, astringency and softening), and their specific properties according to a grid of 11 types of diseases. Pharmaceutical sciences: The book's contribution to the pharmaceutical sciences include the introduction of experimental medicine, evidence-based medicine, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, efficacy tests and clinical pharmacology; the first careful descriptions of skin troubles, sexually transmitted diseases, perversions and nervous ailments; and the discovery of the healing property of gaseous mercury besides its poisonous quality; as well as the use of ice to treat fevers, and the separation of medicine from pharmacology, which was important to the development of the pharmac --enotes, The Canon of Medicine, Wikipedia, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License

Clinical pharmacology: The emphasis of the Canon on tested medicines laid the foundations for an experimental approach to pharmacology. The Canon laid out the following rules and principles for testing the effectiveness of new drugs and medications, which still form the basis of clinical pharmacology and modern clinical trials. "The drug must be free from any extraneous accidental quality." "It must be used on a simple, not a composite, disease." "The drug must be tested with two contrary types of diseases, because sometimes a drug cures one disease by its essential qualities and another by its accidental ones." "The quality of the drug must correspond to the strength of the disease. For example, there are some drugs whose heat is less than the coldness of certain diseases, so that they would have no effect on them." "The time of action must be observed, so that essence and accident are not confused." "The effect of the drug must be seen to occur constantly or in many cases, for if this did not happen, it was an accidental effect." "The experimentation must be done with the human body, for testing a drug on a lion or a horse might not prove anything about its effect on man." The Canon lists 800 tested drugs, including plant and mineral substances, with comments on their application and effectiveness. For each one, he described their pharmaceutical actions from a range of 22 possibilities (including resolution, astringency and softening), and their specific properties according to a grid of 11 types of diseases. Pharmaceutical sciences: The book's contribution to the pharmaceutical sciences include the introduction of experimental medicine, evidence-based medicine, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, efficacy tests and clinical pharmacology; the first careful descriptions of skin troubles, sexually transmitted diseases, perversions and nervous ailments; and the discovery of the healing property of gaseous mercury besides its poisonous quality; as well as the use of ice to treat fevers, and the separation of medicine from pharmacology, which was important to the development of the pharmaceutical sciences. Anatomy and physiology: Writings on anatomy in the Canon are scattered throughout the text in sections regarding to illnesses related to certain body parts. The Canon included numerous discussions on anatomy and diagrams on certain body parts, including the first diagrams of the cranial sutures. Blood pressure: Avicenna dedicated a chapter of the Canon to blood pressure. He was able to discover the causes of bleeding and haemorrhage, and discovered that haemorrhage could be induced by high blood pressure because of higher levels of cholesterol in the blood. This led him to investigate methods of controlling blood pressure. Dissection: The Canon distinguished anatomy "from other aspects of medicine by its need for a different methodology." It thus stated: "As for the parts of the body and their functions, it is necessary that they be approached through observation (hiss) and dissection (tashrih), while those things that must be conjectured and demonstrated by reason are diseases and their particular causes and their symptoms and how disease can be abated and health maintained." Neuroanatomy and neurophysiology: Avicenna discovered the cerebellar vermis which he named "vermis" and the caudate nucleus, which he named "tailed nucleus" or "nucleus caudatus". These terms are still used in modern neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. The Canon was also the earliest text to note that intellectual dysfunctions were largely due to deficits in the brain's middle ventricle, and that the frontal lobe of the brain mediated common sense and reason --enotes, The Canon of Medicine, Wikipedia, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License

Ophthalmology: The contributions of the Canon to ophthalmology in medieval Islam include its descriptions and explanations on the physiology of eye movements, which still forms a basis of information for modern ophthalmology. He also provided useful information on the optic nerves, iris, and central and peripheral facial paralyses. Another contribution the Canon made to ophthalmology was the suggestion that "the optic nerves did cross." Cardiovascular system: In its explanation of the cardiovascular system, The Canon of Medicine "erroneously accepted the Greek notion regarding the existence of a hole in the ventricular septum by which the blood traveled between the ventricles." This would not be corrected until Ibn al-Nafis' Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon provides the first description of the pulmonary circulation in 1242. Ibn al-Nafis also criticized the Canon for its "statement that the blood that is in the right side is to nourish the heart", which he replaced with a theory showing insight into the coronary circulation: "the nourishment to the heart is from the blood that goes through the vessels that permeate the body of the heart." Despite these criticisms, Avicenna "had a vision of blood circulation," and "correctly wrote on the cardiac cycles and valvular function." Cardiology: In cardiology, The Canon of Medicine is the first book to mention the vasovagal syncope and carotid sinus hypersensitivity. According to several scholars, "Article 5 from Book III of this encyclopedia described drop attacks following compression of the carotid artery, yawning, fatigue and flushing, which together resemble neurogenic syncope. Such a description is most likely the first mention of carotid sinus hypersensitivity and vasovagal syncope." The chapter was dedicated to brain diseases effecting intentional movements , and refers to carotid sinus hypersensitivity as Al-Lawa, meaning "torsion". Pulsology and sphygmology: The Canon was a pioneering text in pulsology and sphygmology. In ancient times, Galen as well as Chinese physicians erroneously believed that there was a unique type of pulse for every organ of the body and for every disease. Galen also erroneously believed that "every part of an artery pulsates simultaneously" and that the motion of the pulse was due to natural motions (the arteries expanding and contracting naturally) as opposed to forced motions (the heart causing the arteries to either expand or contract). The first correct explanation of pulsation was given by Avicenna, after he refined Galen's theory of the pulse and discovered the following in The Canon of Medicine: "Every beat of the pulse comprises two movements and two pauses. Thus, expansion : pause : contraction : pause. [...] The pulse is a movement in the heart and arteries ... which takes the form of alternate expansion and contraction." The Canon also pioneered the modern approach of examining the pulse through the examination of the wrist, which is still practiced in modern times. His reasons for choosing the wrist as the ideal location is due to it being easily available and the patient not needing to be distressed at the exposure of his/her body. The Latin translation of his Canon also laid the foundations for the later invention of the sphygmograph. Avicenna also wrote a supplemental treatise on diagnosing diseases using only the methods of feeling the pulse and observing inhalation. He was often capable of finding the symptoms of certain diseases only by feeling a patient's pulse. --enotes, The Canon of Medicine, Wikipedia, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License

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Avicenna/ Bakhtiar, Laleh (Adapted By)
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ISBN 10: 1567448488 ISBN 13: 9781567448481
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Book Description Kazi Pubns Inc, 2013. Paperback. Book Condition: Brand New. 92 pages. 8.50x5.50x0.40 inches. In Stock. Bookseller Inventory # 1567448488

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