J.R.R. Tolkien: The Books, The Films, The Whole Cultural Phenomenon, Including a Scene By Scene Analysis of the 2001-2003 Lord of the Rings Films

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9781861710574: J.R.R. Tolkien: The Books, The Films, The Whole Cultural Phenomenon, Including a Scene By Scene Analysis of the 2001-2003 Lord of the Rings Films

DESCRIPTION A book exploring the world of J.R.R. Tolkien in over 800 pages. Part one of this book focusses on J.R.R. Tolkien’s texts, principally those dealing with his ‘secondary world’ of Middle-earth. Part two explores the 2001-03 Hollywood movies of The Lord of the Rings, with a scene-by-scene analysis of the three films. Part of this book explores the influence of the Tolkien industry, in areas like computer gaming, merchandizing and cinema. EXTRACT FROM THE INTRODUCTION Philip Toynbee declared, in 1961, that Tolkien’s ‘childish books had passed into a merciful oblivion’, a wonderful statement, just a tad inaccurate. In 1997, The Lord of the Rings was voted the top book of the 20th century by readers in a British bookstore’s poll (Waterstone’s). 104 out of 105 stores and 25,000 readers put The Lord of the Rings at the (1984 was second). Around 100 million copies of The Lord of the Rings had been sold by the end of the twentieth century, and 60 million copies of The Hobbit, with sales of around 3 million per year of the two books combined. Readers just love reading Tolkien’s books. It’s that simple. You can’t force people to buy books or go see movies; there’s isn’t a magic formula (or ruling ring) to hypnotize readers and consumers (if there was, it’d be worth billions). And the Tolkien phenomenon began with readers. Back in 1937, 1954 and 1955, the publishers Allen & Unwin did their bit, of course, with reviews, blurbs, advertizing and so on, promoting The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, but it was readers who first started the phenomenon that has become truly global. Tolkien’s influence on literature has been considerable, too, and not just in the realm of fantasy, sci-fi, fairy tales and related genres. As fantasy author Terry Brooks said, Tolkien ‘was the premier fantasy writer of the last century, and all of us writing today owe him a huge debt.’ No other writer W.H. Auden reckoned had ‘created an imaginary world and a history in such detail’. Colin Wilson agreed that only a few writers have concocted a total universe, and that Tolkien’s was very impressive. Tolkien’s mythological writings may be the ‘largest body of invented mythology in the history of literature’, according to David Day (12). Invented, that is, by one person. It’s also ‘certainly the most complex and detailed invented world in all literature’ (13). JEREMY MARK ROBINSON Jeremy Robinson has written many critical studies, including Steven Spielberg, Arthur Rimbaud, Jean-Luc Godard, and The Sacred Cinema of Andrei Tarkovsky, plus literary monographs on: J.R.R. Tolkien; Samuel Beckett; Thomas Hardy; André Gide; Robert Graves; and Lawrence Durrell.

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From the Publisher:

Philip Toynbee declared, in 1961, that Tolkien's `childish books had passed into a merciful oblivion', a wonderful statement, just a tad inaccurate. In 1997, The Lord of the Rings was voted the top book of the 20th century by readers in a British bookstore's poll (Waterstone's). 104 out of 105 stores and 25,000 readers put The Lord of the Rings at the (1984 was second).

Around 100 million copies of The Lord of the Rings had been sold by the end of the twentieth century, and 60 million copies of The Hobbit, with sales of around 3 million per year of the two books combined. Readers just love reading Tolkien's books. It's that simple. You can't force people to buy books or go see movies; there's isn't a magic formula (or ruling ring) to hypnotize readers and consumers (if there was, it'd be worth billions). And the Tolkien phenomenon began with readers. Back in 1937, 1954 and 1955, the publishers Allen & Unwin did their bit, of course, with reviews, blurbs, advertizing and so on, promoting The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, but it was readers who first started the phenomenon that has become truly global. Tolkien's influence on literature has been considerable, too, and not just in the realm of fantasy, sci-fi, fairy tales and related genres. As fantasy author Terry Brooks said, Tolkien `was the premier fantasy writer of the last century, and all of us writing today owe him a huge debt.' No other writer W.H. Auden reckoned had `created an imaginary world and a history in such detail'. Colin Wilson agreed that only a few writers have concocted a total universe, and that Tolkien's was very impressive. Tolkien's mythological writings may be the `largest body of invented mythology in the history of literature', according to David Day (12). Invented, that is, by one person. It's also `certainly the most complex and detailed invented world in all literature' (13).

If you thought that there wasn't really a Tolkien industry prior to the 2001-2003 Lord of the Rings films, you were wrong. A massive Tolkien industry has been around for decades: the 2001-03 films were simply adding to that. The Tolkien industry consists of (among other things): Tolkien societies in many countries, Tolkien fan newsletters, Tolkien merchandize catalogues, Tolkien websites, Tolkien chess sets, decorative porcelain plates, fantasy posters, Middle-earth maps, Tolkien calendars, Lord of the Rings plastic figures (Mithril Miniatures, Harlequin, and movie tie-ins), music and songs based on Tolkien's writing, Tolkien's verse set to music, Middle-earth puzzles, fan fiction, Middle-earth poems, Middle-earth playing cards, Middle-earth games and activity packs, Lord of the Rings keyfobs, Tolkien diaries, a Hobbit birthday book, Frodo necklaces, Gandalf pendants, replica swords, replica jewellery (including the golden ring, of course), telephone cards, Kinder Surprise chocolate egg figures, Tolkien role-playing games (MERP, METW), Lord of the Rings stickers, Tolkien postcards, fridge magnets, and Middle-earth stationary. Tolkien fan conferences, seminars and symposia, Tolkien art exhibitions. Then there are myriad editions of Tolkien's books: limited editions, collector's editions, boxed editions, anniversary editions, pop-up books, cartoon books, etc. Among the books dedicated to the world of Tolkien's fiction are: dictionaries of elvish, guides to Tolkien's invented languages, guides and atlases to Middle-earth, Tolkien bestiaries, teachers' guides to Tolkien, Middle-earth quiz books, Tolkien books of days, books of fantasy art, spinoff books, and spoofs (Bored of the Rings). Radio versions of The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit (on CD, tape, etc), audio books (read by the author, or by actors), film versions (on video, DVD, etc), and stage productions.

From the Author:

CONTENTS

Acknowledgements 7

Abbreviations 9

Introduction 11

P A R T O N E

J.R.R TOLKIEN

1 Tolkien Biography 15

2 Sources and Influences 33

3 Language, Style, Humour 51

4 Fairy Tales and J.R.R. Tolkien 63

5 Religion in Tolkien's Fiction 81

6 Death and the Past 90

7 Middle-earth 94

8 The Silmarillion 104

9 Beren and Lúthien 125

10 Morgoth/ Melkor 130

11 Sauron 141

12 The Wizards 160

13 Tom Bombadil 164

14 Trees In Tolkien's Work 168

15 The Tolkien Industry 175

16 Tolkien and Pop Music 188

17 Tolkien, Harry Potter and Star Wars 194

18 Illustrating Tolkien 198

19 J.R.R. Tolkien and Feminism 208

20 Criticism of Tolkien's Work 219

P A R T T W O

WRITING THE LORD OF THE RINGS

21 Writing The Lord of the Rings 231

22 The Publishing History of The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings and The Silmarillion 261

23 The Ring 274

24 Narrative Strategies In Tolkien's Fiction 288

25 Notes, Ideas and Techniques In Tolkien's Middle-earth Fictions 298

P A R T T H R E E

THE LORD OF THE RINGS 2001-2003 FILMS

26 Adaptions of J.R.R. Tolkien's Works 328

27 Adapting The Lord of the Rings For the 2001-2003 Films 344

28 The Studio and the Deal 372

29 Casting and Personnel 395

30 Peter Jackson 410

31 The Making the Lord of the Rings Movies 419

32 The Look and Style of the 2001-2003 Lord of the Rings Films 446

33 Visual Effects 460

34 Music 467

35 Differences Between the Book and the Films 471

36 Selling the 2001-2003 Lord of the Rings Movies 507

37 Pre-release Thoughts 527

38 The Fellowship of the Ring Film (2001) 534

39 The Fellowship of the Ring, Scene By Scene 557

40 The Film of The Two Towers (2002) 617

41 The Two Towers, Scene By Scene 632

42 The Return of the King Film (2003) 700

43 The Return of the King, Scene By Scene 711

44 Further Criticisms of the 2001- Lord of the Rings Films 775

Bibliography 783

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