The Soil Chemistry of Hazardous Materials

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9781884940118: The Soil Chemistry of Hazardous Materials
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The second edition of The Soil Chemistry of Hazardous Materials has been extensively revised and updated since the first edition. The text reflects the state of the science. Much is known about some areas and very little about others. Nevertheless, there is a great deal that is misunderstood about the behavior of chemicals in soil: One of the author's principal objectives in publishing the work is to dispel commonly held misconceptions and correct misapplications; over 100 have been identified and outlined in this edition. The Soil Chemistry of Hazardous Materials is devoted to providing scientists and professionals with a basic knowledge of the principles t hat govern the proper estimation of migration and degradation potential of chemicals in topsoil, and in the saturated and unsaturated zones. These principles apply to chemical behavior in solid and hazardous waste treatment and disposal units employing or impacting soil and other geologic materials--landfarms, landfills, deep well injection systems, compost piles, and sites affected by leaks, spills, and other types of accidental or deliberate chemical releases. A substantial amount of new knowledge concerning the basic nature and properties of soil, the behavior of water in the unsaturated zone, and the behavior of bulk hydrocarbons in soils appear only in this edition. Examples include a discussion of NAPL's and how they move in the subsurface and treatment technologies such as bioremediation, metal stabilization, and permeable walls. Because the focus is on practical applications of these basic chemistry principles, the text incorporates information from other soil science and environmental disciplines where appropriate.

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An essential tool for: Hydrologists, Geologists, Biologists, Chemists, Civil, Environmental and Geotechnical Engineers, Environmental scientists.

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From the Preface: Soil Chemistry, the study of chemical principles governing the behavior of soil and the behavior of chemicals in the soil, is taught at relatively few U.S. universities, and then only at the graduate level. Most scientists and engineers have some knowledge of chemistry at the freshman level. Most scientists and engineers have some knowledge of chemistry at the freshman level and little or no background in soil chemistry. However, it is essential that anyone involved in site remediation, site assessment of waste treatment, disposal, or storage facilities, or analysis of chemical releases related to the cleanup or closure of contaminated industrial sites possess a through understanding of the principles of soil chemistry presented in this text. It has been revised and updated for those hydrologists, geologists, civil, environmental, and geotechnical engineers, biologists, chemists, and environmental scientists who must identify and determine the significance of chemicals in soil. The text focuses primarily on those soil chemistry principles that are pertinent to the behavior of hazardous materials in soil. The term 'hazardous material' refers to a wide variety of toxic, corrosive, ignitable, flammable, and/or radioactive products and wastes. These can be solids, liquids, gases, or etilolgic agents. Today's scientists and engineers are involved in an increasing number of projects in which hazardous substances must be considered; this volume includes timely discussion of several case studies involving a wide variety of hazardous materials, incorporated into the introduction and discussion of the basic principles of soil chemistry and the structure of specific chemicals (which governs how they react in soil). An expanded discussion of the behavior of organic and inorganic chemicals and of hazardous materials present in dilute concentrations in aqueous and non-aqueous solvents has been included in this revised edition. This second edition of The Soil Chemistry of Hazardous Materials has been extensively revised and updated since the first edition was published in 1988. It is based on the knowledge and broad professional experience of the author, who continues to work with federal, state, and local agencies, as well as fellow consulting engineers and private industry. The text reflects the state of the science. Much is known about some areas and very little about others. Nevertheless, there is a great deal that is misunderstood about the behavior of chemicals in the soil: One of the author's principal objectives in publishing the work is to dispel commonly held misconceptions and correct misapplications. Over 100 have been identified and outlined here. Despite the importance of new information included in this revision, The Soil Chemistry of Hazardous Materials is devoted to providing scientists and professionals with a basic knowledge of the principles that govern the proper estimation of migration and degradation potential of chemicals in topsoil and in the saturated and unsaturated zones. They apply to chemical behavior in solid and hazardous waste treatment and disposal units employing or impacting soil and other geologic materials3/4landfarms, landfills, deep well injection systems, compost piles, and sites affected by leaks, spills, and other types of accidental or deliberate chemical releases. It is critical information. Mathematical models must reflect these principles or they will fail; soil and groundwater in situ treatment technologies will fail as well if they do not work in unison with what is known about soil chemistry. And it is next-to-impossible to arrive at an accurate determination of "how clean is clean" without a thorough understanding and correct application of these principles. Several simple or relatively uncomplicated models giving general information on chemical migration and degradation in soil and groundwater have been provided, along with new data that should be useful to the scientist or professional who experiments with the models3/4new information on the physical and chemical properties of soil and various hazardous materials, for example. A substantial amount of new knowledge concerning the basic nature and properties of soil, the behavior of water in the unsaturated zone, and the behavior of bulk hydrocarbons in soils (chapters one, two, and six) appear only in this edition. Because the focus is on practical applications of these basic chemistry principles, the text incorporates information from the other soil science and environmental disciplines where appropriate. The author strongly suggests that those individuals unfamiliar with soil chemistry read the text in its entirety. When it is necessary at a later date to know how a chemical is likely to behave in a particular situation, he or she will know precisely what to look for and where to find it. Whether the text is read cover to cover or intended as a valuable reference tool (or both!), the author's hope is that the information will be used in conjunction with laboratory and field data on a site-by-site basis for timely, cost effective, meaningful assessment of the relative magnitude of hazards, and the ultimate protection and wise use of our natural resources.

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