Blue Versus Orange: The U.S. Naval War College, Japan, and the Old Enemy in the Pacific, 1945–1946

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9781935352020: Blue Versus Orange: The U.S. Naval War College, Japan, and the Old Enemy in the Pacific, 1945–1946
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This book is a companion to the author’s Digesting History (published by NWCP, sold by GPO, and winner of the North American Society for Oceanic History’s 2010 John Lyman Book Prize for Primary Source Materials, Reference Works, and Guide Books). It closely analyzes war gaming at the Naval War college in the academic year 1945–46, as both a reflection and source of the U.S. Navy’s doctrinal and strategic responses to the experience of World War II—responses that would help the Navy shape its approach to the new conditions from which the Cold War soon emerged, as well as, effectively, lay groundwork for the seminal Maritime Strategy of the 1980s.  In the course of analysis the book describes in detail the practice of naval war gaming—of which the College was and remains a world leader—in that era.  

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About the Author:

 Hal M. Friedman is Professor of Modern History in the History and Political Science Department of the Humanities and Social Science Division at Henry FordCommunity College, Dearborn, Michigan. Educated at Eastern Michigan University with a bachelor of science in political science and history (magna cum laude) in1987, Professor Friedman took his master of arts and doctor of philosophy degrees in the history of international relations at Michigan State University in 1991 and1995, respectively. Additionally, he teaches part-time as an adjunct faculty member of the Command and Staff College Distance Education Program within the U.S.Marine Corps University’s College of Continuing Education; a section instructor in Norwich University’s online Master of Arts in Military History Program; andan adjunct lecturer of strategy and policy in the U.S. Naval War College’s Non-Resident Strategy and Policy Seminar Program. Professor Friedman has formerlytaught for Central Michigan University-Metro Detroit, Eastern Michigan University, Michigan State University, the University of Detroit-Mercy, the University ofMichigan-Dearborn, and Washtenaw Community College.
Professor Friedman is the author of Creating an American Lake: United States Imperialism and Strategic Security in the Pacific Basin, 1945–1947 (Westport, Conn.:Greenwood, 2001), Governing the American Lake: The US Defense and Administration of the Pacific, 1945–1947 (East Lansing: Michigan State Univ. Press, 2007), Arguingover the American Lake: Bureaucracy and Rivalry in the U.S. Pacific, 1945–1947 (College Station: Texas A&M Univ. Press, 2009), and Digesting History: The U.S.Naval War College, the Lessons of World War II, and Future Naval Warfare, 1945– 1947 (Newport, R.I.: Naval War College Press, 2010). Professor Friedman is alsoediting a collection of essays about the United States military in the Pacific and East Asia in the 1940s entitled Establishing Hegemony: The American Military Presencein the Pacific Basin, 1940–1950. He has additionally published numerous articles in The Hawaiian Journal of History, Intelligence and National Security, ISLA: A Journalof Micronesian Studies, The Journal of Pacific History, Pacific Historical Review, and The History Teacher, H-Net, the International Journal of Naval History, TheJournal of American History, The Journal of Military History, Michigan Historical Review, Michigan War Studies Review, National Identities, Pacific Historical Review,the Journal of World History, the World History Bulletin, and World War II. Professor Friedman was an article abstractor for ABC-CLIO; an article referee for MichiganHistorical Review, The Michigan Academician, and Pacific Historical Review; a monograph referee for Texas A&M University Press; and a textbook reviewer forHoughton Mifflin, Longman Publishers, McGraw-Hill, and Prentice Hall.
Professor Friedman has been a conference program committee member for the Organization of American Historians, the Liberal Arts Network for Development,and the Ohio Academy of History; both a consulting historian and summer scholar with the National Endowment for the Humanities’ Landmarks of American Historyand Culture Program; and a consulting historian for the Department of Education’s Teaching American History Program. He is also a cofounder of the MetroDetroit Historians Collegium, a member of the Michigan War Studies Review Editorial Board, and a member of the Ohio Academy of History’s Professional DevelopmentCommittee. Professor Friedman has also been honored a number of times, including with the Major General Thomas S. Jones, USMC, Distance Learning Instructor of theYear Award, Fort Worth Region, Command and Staff College Distance Education Program, Marine Corps College of Continuing Education; with an EdwardS. Miller Fellowship in Naval History for the Naval War College’s Naval Historical Collection; with an Alumni Award for Outstanding Academic and Professional Accomplishmentsfrom Eastern Michigan University’s Department of History and Philosophy; and as an honorary member in Phi Theta Kappa, the Two-Year CollegeInternational Honor Society.
Heavily involved with Henry Ford Community College’s shared-governance system, Professor Friedman has served on a variety of committees for HFCC andhis union local, the last as the secretary of the Henry Ford Community College Federation of Teachers, American Federation of Teachers Local 1650.Professor Friedman served as a personnelman (PN) in the U.S. Naval Reserve, primarily as a pay and personnel clerk in several Naval Reserve Intelligence Commandunits. His service awards include the Naval Reserve Meritorious Service Medal, the National Defense Service Medal, and the Joint Meritorious Unit Award.He was also chosen as the Fleet Intelligence Rapid Support Team 1773 Junior Sailor of the Year for 1991.

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Journal of the Australian Association for Maritime History  --The Great Circle Book Reviews Vol. 36, No. 2.

Hal M Friedman, Blue versus Orange: The U.S. Naval War College, Japan, and the Old Enemy in the Pacific, 1945-1946,Naval War College Historical Monograph Series No. 21, Naval War College Press, Newport, Rhode Island 2013. 361 pages, illustrated with index. Available through the US Government Printing Office at http://bookstore.gpo.gov/agency/621, US$69.00. ISBN 9781935352022 

Hal Friedman is a professor in the History and Political Science Department at Henry Ford Community College in Michigan and this book is the second in his planned trilogy on the history of the US Naval War College in the immediate post-war years. The first book, still available from the US Government Bookstore (http://bookstore.gpo.gov/products/sku/008-300-00040-2?ctid=621), looked broadly at how the college viewed the future of naval warfare. This latest volume looks more specifically at the war gaming that went on at the college during the same period, as will the third volume.
Established at Newport in 1884, the college is the oldest institution of its kind in the world, and by the end of World War II had been developing the art of naval war gaming for more than 60 years. By 1945 it had become a signature research and teaching tool and, even without computer automation, gaming remained extremely valuable in helping to understand human reactions and decision-making. Yet, with the end of the war, the college staff faced the challenge of providing learning opportunities to their student officers while at the same time adapting to the wholesale demobilisation of ships and personnel, the reconversion of industry and rapid changes to US foreign policy.
Employing a chronological narrative Friedman has made use of selected war games, or ‘Operations Problems’, played during the 1945-1946 academic year to closely analyse the character of naval thinking in a time of transition from war to peace. As such, the exercises and manoeuvres tended to focus on recent operations that had been, or might have been, conducted against Japan or ‘Orange’, often in the South China Sea and northern Pacific.
Although these games continued to consider ‘Orange’ the primary enemy, Friedman also shows how the first traces can be found of the preparations for the beginning of tensions that would soon emerge in the Cold War. Obviously no one really knew what the next war would be like, but Friedman finds that the combined-arms scenarios that were played reflected the possibility that fewer aircraft carriers would be available. This would mean more reliance placed on surface ships, since the poor weather experienced in the northern Pacific would likely degrade aircraft and sensor performance. By the 1946-47 academic year, the Soviet Union or ‘Purple’ would replace ‘Orange’ as the number-one hypothetical enemy of the US Navy.
The book includes several black and white illustrations of significant personalities at the college, views of the tactical floor when games were underway, and numerous explanatory diagrams and maps. The detail provided on the individual games and how they were played may be somewhat overwhelming for the non-specialist reader, but there can be no doubt that Professor Friedman’s study provides an important reflection on the US Navy’s doctrinal and strategic responses to recent wartime experience.

9/14/2014  Book Review-- International Journal of Navy History

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Friedman, Hal M.
Published by Naval War College Press (2013)
ISBN 10: 1935352024 ISBN 13: 9781935352020
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Book Description Naval War College Press, 2013. Soft cover. Condition: New. 1st Edition. New. Pristine. No markings. A detailed study of Naval War College wargaming development following the defeat of Japan ("Orange") when the US Navy was preparing a containment strategy for a new adversary in the Pacific, the Soviet Union ("Purple"). This was a complex wargame with special rules simulating everything from seaplane operations to decontamination of radioactive fleet units. With 149 figures that include combat resolution tables, wargame message traffic, photographs of NWC wargaming in progress. 11 maps. Cover: John Hamilton's painting of a Kamikaze attack on the USS Tennessee; inset of Vice Admiral William Pye, NWC President 1942-46. // Shipped carefully packed in a sturdy box. Seller Inventory # 011926

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Hal M. Friedman
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Book Description Dept. of the Navy, 2013. Condition: New. book. Seller Inventory # M1935352024

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