Heat treatment of metallic alloys constitutes an important step within the production process. The heat treatment process itself is considered as a cycle of heating the workpieces to a predetermined temperature, keeping them at this temperature for the time period required, and cooling them to room temperature in an appropriate way. The process of heating and keeping workpieces at the required temperature is now adays weil mastered and mostly automatized. The process of cooling or quenching which determines actually the resulting properties, is handicapped with many physical and technical uncertainties. Good results can already be obtained predominantly by using empirically based practice. But increased demands on the properties of the pro ducts as weIl as demands on safety and environment conditions of the quenching media require efforts to investigate the details of the quenching process and to transfer the results of the research to practical application. Advances in the knowledge about quenching processes have been achieved by modem applied thermodynamics especially by the heat and mass transfer researches; further the application of computer technology was helpful to new approaches in quenching pro cesses. Special emphases has been given to: - The theory of heat transfer and heat exchange intensification during quenching - Wetting kinematics - Residual stresses after quenching - Determination of the quenching intensity - Prediction of microstructural transformation and hardness distribution after quenching, the latter with some limitations.
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Book Description Springer Verlag;, 1992. Gebundene Ausgabe. Book Condition: Gut. 484 Seiten; Das Buch befindet sich in einem ordentlich erhaltenen Zustand; in ENGLISCHER Sprache! Table of Contents 1 Transformation of Steels During Cooling By H. P. Hougardy I 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Constitution of Iron Alloys 1 1.3 Kinetics of Transformation 3 1.3.1 Principles 3 1.3.2 Microstructures of Steels 4 188.8.131.52 Types of Microstructure 4 184.108.40.206 Ferrite and Pearlite 4 220.127.116.11 Martensite 5 18.104.22.168 Bainite 7 22.214.171.124 Influence of Transformation Temperature 11 126.96.36.199 Tempering 11 1.3.3 Mechanical Properties of Microstructures 12 1.3.4 Transformation Diagrams 12 188.8.131.52 Austenitization 12 184.108.40.206 Isothermal Transformation 14 220.127.116.11 Transformation During Continuous Cooling 15 1.4 Factors Influencing the Transformation 15 1.4.1 Austenitizing Conditions 15 1.4.2 Cooling Rate 15 1.4.3 Alloying Elements 15 1.5 Description of Transformation in Components 16 1.6 Calculation of Transformation and Properties 17 References 17 2 Mechanical Properties of Ferrous and Nonferrous Alloys After Quenching ByH. J. Spies 19 2.1 Objectives of Quenching 19 2.2 Influence of Heat Treatment Structures on the Mechanical Properties 21 2.2.1 Ferrous Materials 21 2.2.2 Precipitation-Hardenable Aluminium Alloys 29 2.3 Characterization of Transformation Behaviour 33 References 39 /911091203VIII Table of contents 3 Thermo- and Fluiddynamic Principles of Heat Transfer During Cooling By F. Mayinger 41 3.1 Phenomena of Heat Transfer During Immersion Cooling 41 3.2 Single Phase Convection 48 3.2.1 Heat Transfer Equations for Forced Convection 53 3.2.2 Heat Transfer Equations for Natural Convection 54 3.3 Two Phase Heat Transfer 55 3.3.1 Free Convection Boiling 55 3.3.2 Forced Convection Boiling 57 3.3.3 Heat Transfer with Film Boiling 63 3.3.4 Transition Boiling 65 3.3.5 Critical Heat Flux 66 3.3.6 Immersion Cooling 67 List of Symbols 69 List of Subscripts 70 References 71 4 Heat Transfer During Cooling of Heated Metallic Objects with Evaporating Liquids By R. Jeschar, E. Specht and Chr. Kohler 73 4.1 Mechanism of Heat Transfer 73 4.2 Film Quenching 75 4.3 Immersion Quenching 81 4.4 Spray Quenching 89 References 92 5 Wetting Kinematics ByH. M. Tensi 91 5.1 Introduction 93 5.2 Definition of the Wetting Process 93 5.3 Model of Vapour Blanket Breakdown During Immersion Cooling of Metallic Bodies 97 5.4 Effect of Wetting Process on Cooling Behaviour 99 5.5 Impact of Quenchant Properties on Wetting Process 102 5.6 Impact of Sample Properties on Wetting Process 110 5.7 Summary 114 5.8 List of Symbols 115 References 116 6 Residual Stresses After Cooling By E. Macherauch and O. Vohringer 117 6.1 Introduction 117 6.2 Some Fundamentals 119 6.2.1 Definitions of Residual Stresses 119 6.2.2 Quenching of Steel Cylinders 123 6.2.3 Transformation Processes of Austenitized Steels During Quenching . 127 Table of contents IX 6.3 Stresses During Quenching of Cylinders with Ideal Linear-Elastic Deformation Behaviour 133 6.3.1 Shrinking Stresses Due to Local and Temporal Differences in Thermal Shrinking 133 6.3.2 Transformation Stresses Due to Local and Temporal Stresses in Phase Transformations 135 6.3.3 Superposition of Shrinking and Transformation Stresses 136 6.4 Residual Stresses After Quenching of Cylinders with Real Elastic-Plastic Deformation Behaviour 137 6.4.1 Plastic Deformations Due to Shrinking and Phase Transformations . 137 6.4.2 General Aspects of Shrinking, Transformation and Hardening Residual Stresses 139 6.4.3 Characteristic Examples of Stresses and Residual Stresses in Differently Quenched Plain Carbon and Low Alloy Steels 147 6.5 Residual Stresses After Quenching of Carburized Steels 155 6.5.1 Some Fundamentals 155 6.5.2 Characteristic Examples 161 6.6 Residual Stresses After Quenching of Steels with Induction Heated Surface Layers 168 6.6.1 Quenching Without Transformation 168 6.6.2 Quenching Combined with Transformation 169 6.7 Residual Stresses After Self-Quenching of Steels with Laser-Heated Surface Layers 174 6.7.1 Quenching After Austenitizing 174. Bookseller Inventory # 1232274