Between the two world wars of the 20th century, the architects of the Nieuwe Bouwen movement of Dutch functionalism admired H. P. Berlage above all for his ideas on normalization and standardization in housing. This group of architects developed a a polemic springboard, being well organized and closely related to the Modern movement. They strove for a new conciousness of beauty on a universal level, Ideas on unity of the arts, creating a balanced environment that would in the future dominate all aspects of life. At the end of WWII the Dutch government gave priority to the rebuilding of the infrastructure and restoring the productive capacity of industry. When the fulfillment of housing needs was put on the agenda, the policy of industrial expansion implied the maintenance of low wages and so instruments were developed in the housing policy to keep rents low. Both politicians and architect strove for socially well-balanced neighborhoods. They believed strongly that social cohesion could be restored inthe new neighbourhoods by developing new urbanistic condepts like the neighborhood units or cluster. Each cluster consisted of a variety of buildings serving different categories of tenants. This social diversity is reflected in the spatial lay-out of the cluster bby using free standing blocks of different sizes and number of floor levels, together surrounding a communal green space. Holland in general has a long history of collective housing for the working man.
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