Electromagnetic theory remains an active field of research. After World War II space probes, in particular, satellites have been used extensively and as a result our knowledge of ionosphere and atmosphere through which electromagnetic waves propagate, has been extended considerably. Ingenious ground-based techniques such as incoherent back scattering is developed. Also precise laboratory experiments are conducted for determining upper atmospheric parameters. Previously, electromagnetic waves having frequencies less than 30 MHz were used for ionospheric probing. At present waves of higher frequencies, VHF, microwave and millimeter waves, have been utilized for investigation. The vista of investigation are extended to cover ionosphere to interplanetary, interstellar space and objects embedded in these regions. Artificial satellite communication has revolutionized the communication process. The present book is an up-to-date account of the results of this important field of research with special reference to achievements carried out after World War II.
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