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Between 1945 and 2004, the court of Surakarta Hadiningrat in central Java was led by one man, Paku Buwono XII. This period was one of much social change, usually peaceful, although there were some violent incidents. Nevertheless, as ruler he managed to maintain much of the ceremony associated with the traditional role of the court, ensuring that it played a central role in Javanese cultural identity. He was also at the forefront of efforts to find a new position for the court as a stabilizing influence in Indonesia's search for modernity. Today, the Surakarta palace continues to strive to find new ways to achieve harmony between change and tradition, one of the main goals of Javanese philosophy.
- Foundation and Development of Karaton Surakarta
- Architecture and Symbolism
- Beyond the Palace Walls
- Court Traditions
- Present and Future
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