Intensive investigations on nanoscale magnetism have promoted remarkable progressintechnologicalapplicationsofmagnetisminvariousareas.Thete- nical progress of recent years in the preparations of multilayer thin ?lms and nanowires led to the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR), imp- ing an extraordinary change in the resistivity of the material by varying the applied external magnetic ?eld. The Nobel Prize for Physics in 2007 was awardedtoAlbertFertandPeterGrun ¨ bergfortheirdiscoveryofGMR.App- cations of this phenomenon have revolutionizedtechniques for retrieving data fromharddisks.Thediscoveryalsoplaysamajorroleinvariousmagnetics- sors as well as the development of a new generation of electronics. The use of GMRcanberegardedasoneofthe?rstmajorapplicationsofnanotechnology. The GMR materials have already found applications as sensors of low magnetic ?eld, a key component of computer hard disk heads, magnetores- tive RAM chips etc. The ?read? heads for magnetic hard disk drives have allowed us to increase the storage density on a disk drive from 1 to 20 Gbit per square inch, merely by the incorporation of the new GMR materials. On the other hand, recently discovered giant magneto-impedance (GMI) mate- als look very promising in the development of a new generation of microwave band electronic devices (such as switches, attenuators, and antennas) which could be managed electrically.
The book aims to provide an overview of recent progress in the understanding of magnetic properties in nanoscale through recent results of various theoretical and experimental investigations. The papers describe a wide range of physical aspects, together with theoretical and experimental methods. It is of central interest to researchers and specialists in magnetism and magnetic materials science, both in academic and industrial research, as well as advanced students.
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