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'On the Diamagnetic Conditions of Flame and Gases.' Pp. 401-421 in: The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, Vol. 31, No. 210, December 1847, Third Series.

FARADAY, Michael (1791-1867):

Published by London: Richard & John E. Taylor, 1847., 1847
Used Condition: Fine Soft cover
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First Edition. Entire issue offered, pp. 401-480. Original printed wrappers, uncut. Near Fine. 'Having heard from Zantedeschi that Bancalari had established the magnetism of flame, [Faraday] repeated the experiments and augmented the results. He passed from flames to gases, examining and revealing their magnetic and diamagnetic powers; and then he suddenly rose from his bubbles of oxygen and nitrogen to the atmospheric envelope of the earth itself, and its relations to the great question of terrestrial magnetism. The rapidity with which these ever-augmenting thoughts assumed the form of experiments is unparalleled. His power in this respect is often best illustrated by his minor investigations, and, perhaps, by none more strikingly than by his paper 'On the Diamagnetic Condition of Flame and Gases,' published as a letter to Mr. Richard Taylor, in the Philosophical Magazine for December, 1847 [offered here]. After verifying, varying, and expanding the results of Bancalari, he submitted to examination heated air-currents, produced by platinum spirals placed in the magnetic field, and raised to incandescence by electricity. He then examined the magnetic deportment of gases generally. Almost all of these gases are invisible; but he must, nevertheless, track them in their unseen courses. He could not effect this by mingling smoke with his gases, for the action of his magnet upon the smoke would have troubled his conclusions. He, therefore, 'caught' his gases in tubes, carried them out of the magnetic field, and made them reveal themselves at a distance from the magnet. Immersing one gas in another, he determined their differential action; results of the utmost beauty being thus arrived at. Perhaps the most important are those obtained with atmospheric air and its two constituents. Oxygen, in various media, was strongly attracted by the magnet; in coal-gas, for example, it was powerfully magnetic, whereas nitrogen was diamagnetic. Some of the effects obtained with oxygen in coal-gas were strikingly beautiful. When the fumes of chloride of ammonium (a diamagnetic substance) were mingled with the oxygen, the cloud of chloride behaved in a most singular manner. 'The attraction of iron filings,' says Faraday, 'to a magnetic pole is not more striking than the appearance presented by the oxygen under these circumstances' ' (John Tyndall, Faraday as a Discoverer, 1868, pp. 108-110). 'The last, and in many ways the most brilliant, of Faraday's series of researches . . . The plane of polarization of a ray of plane-polarized light was rotated when the ray was passed through a glass rhomboid of high refractive index in a strong magnetic field. The angle of rotation was directly proportional to the strength of the magnetic force and, for Faraday, this indicated the direct effect of magnetism upon light. 'That which is magnetic in the forces of matter,' he wrote, 'has been affected, and in turn has affected that which is truly magnetic in the force of light.' . . . Not all bodies reacted in the same way to the magnetic force. Some, like iron, aligned themselves along the lines of magnetic force and were drawn into the more intense parts of the magnetic field. Others, like bismuth, set themselves across the lines of force and moved toward the less intense areas of magnetic force. The first group Faraday christened 'paramagnetics'; the second, 'diamagnetics.' The discovery of diamagnetism stimulated the production of theories to account for this new phenomenon' (L. Pearce Williams in D.S.B. IV: 538). This issue also contains SYLVESTER, James Joseph, 'On the General Solution (in certain cases) of the equation' (pp. 467-471); For this paper by Sylvester, see Tatiana Lavrinenko, 'Solving an indeterminate third degree equation in rational numbers: Sylvester and Lucas' (Revue d'histoire des mathématiques 8, fascicule 1, 2002, pp. 67-111). For Sylvester, also see John D. North's article in D.S.B. XIII, pp. 216-222. Bookseller Inventory # 16574

Bibliographic Details

Title: 'On the Diamagnetic Conditions of Flame and ...

Publisher: London: Richard & John E. Taylor, 1847.

Publication Date: 1847

Binding: Soft cover

Book Condition:Fine

Dust Jacket Condition: No Jacket

Edition: 1st Edition

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