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A FINE ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPT ROAD MAP ACROSS LINCOLN COUNTY IN MAINE: An untitled road map extending east from Brunswick on Stephen's River to St. George's Fort, on the St. George River at Penobscot Bay, with the further route to Fort Pownall Indicated


Published by [ca 1765]., 1765
Soft cover
From Arader Galleries - Aradernyc (New York, NY, U.S.A.)

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Original manuscript map (72 x 14 4/8 inches), pen and ink and colour wash on paper, lightly varnished. Showing the route from Brunswick approximately 100 miles north of Boston to part of Penobscot Bay about 100 miles east of Boston. Mounted on linen in the 19th-century and fringed with embroidered silks and wools, and hung from wooden rollers at each end. Provenance: by direct descent from Sir Francis Bernard (1712-1779), last governor of Massachusetts, his sale Bonhams, London, June 7th, lot 50. "An important and early example of 'thematic cartography' in America. An itinerary map, it carefully illustrates Governor Bernard's exceptional interest in the development of transportation infrastructure, and is one of a magnificent series of maps which he commissioned to delineate the road system extending from Albany, NY to the Penobscot River, Maine. The present map would have served as a vital aide to advancing Bernard's expansionist agenda in Maine, as the road depicted acted as the principal gateway to the Sagadohoc country" (Alex Johnson). This fine map shows the route from Brunswick to Penobscot Bay, quite possibly through land owned by Bernard, who since his arrival in Massachusetts had been lent, given, or bought huge tracts of land: "There are now good Purchases to be made on the River Penobscot. about 6,000 acres of very good land be had for 1 dollar and 2 an Acre" (Bernard, letter to John Pownall, 26 November 1768). The route travels through Lincoln county, noting taverns, streams and rivers, intersections with other roads, and St. George's Fort: Brunswick; Ross's Tavern; Thompson's Tavern; St. Stephen's River; Whifgig River (sometimes called 'Quegeseck River'); Kennebeck River; Negwasett River; Monsweig River; Sevey's Tavern; Verill's Tavern; Sheep's-Gut River (sometimes called 'Ship's Cot River'); Cunningham's Tavern; Dameriscotty River; Broad bay; Leissnar's Tavern; Black River St. or the West Branch of George's River; McIntyre's Tavern at the crossing of the St. George River; St. George's Fort; Road from Fort Pownall, Part of Pennobscot [sic] Bay. "With Boston merchant Thomas Goldthwait, Bernard also acquired land near Mount Desert Island on the west side of the Penobscot River. This township already called Fort Frank by the Province surveyor, Joseph Chadwick, in his 1764 survey from Fort Pownall to Quebec. Chadwick had described it as the land of Waldo, Goldthwait, and Bernard, but the public deed to this land was not signed until 1766. for the time being, Bernard set a line north of his township at 'the Falls,' where no English should settle, leaving the are to the north for the native Americans. he could now sell his own townships to the south without competition from other settlements" (Jones "Governor Francis Bernard and his Land Acquisitions" from the 'Historical Journal of Massachusetts' pages131 and 132. This area is shown on the large map of the "American Estates" held by Bernard and illustrated in Nicolson's "The Papers of Governor Francis Bernard" on page 314. "Land speculation was one means of raising money. Bernard's largest acquisition was a share in a Crown grant of one hundred thousand acres of virgin land in Passamaquoddy Bay, Nova Scotia. His partners included Benjamin Franklin, Richard Jackson, and Thomas Pownall. In November 1763 the Kennebeck Company awarded Bernard five hundred acres in Pownalborough, possibly as an incentive to win his favour in the company's legal disputes with Chief Justice Hutchinson. Bernard also acquired cheaply lots in several Massachusetts townships and seven others in New Hampshire" (Nicolson "The 'Infamas Govener'" page 83). "There is strong evidence to suggest that the mapmaker is Francis Miller. Miller was the signed draughtsman of "A Plan of the Road between Boston and Penobscot Bay" (1765), also commissioned by Bernard, and the present map is consistent with his style of draughtsmanship and seems to be from the same series. Miller deserves to be better known as pioneer of thematic cartography in America, not only for these magnificent itinerary maps, but for the forestry management and canal maps/plans he drafted in 1772, while serving as Deputy Inspector-General of HM's Woods in New Hampshire & Vermont, most notably "A Plan of that Part of the Connecticut River which includes the great Falls at Walpole" (National Archives UK, catalogue no.: MPD 1/56/3. This map depicts and elaborate scheme to build a canal that would allow timber to be floated down the Connecticut River" (Alex Johnson). Lincoln County, established in 1760 by the Kennebec Purchase Company, and named after the birthplace of Thomas Pownall, for whom the capital town was named, is in the centre of what is now Maine, boasts a greater number of harbors and havens, than any other county. Damariscotta River, shown in this map runs north to south through the centre of the county, east and parallel is Broad Bay which is an inland extension of Muscongus Bay. To the west is the Sheepscot River. The county is now bounded on the east by Knox County, west by Sagadahoc and Kennebec, and north by Kennebec, Waldo and Knox. Sir Francis Bernard (1712-1779) was the last properly-appointed royal governor of Massachusetts, his successors being the hated Thomas Hutchinson as acting governor, and Thomas Gage as military governor. In 1741 Bernard had married Amelia Offley (with whom he had eight children), and she provided him with excellent political connections, as she was the niece of Colonel Samuel Shute, a former royal governor of Massachusetts, and a cousin of Viscount Barrington, with whom Bernard became good friends. "Barrington's influence led to the appointment of Bernard in 1758 as the royal governor of New Jersey. During Bernard's short tenure as governor, he managed to resolve most of New Jersey's major problems and to settle many of the controversies that divided the colony. His success produced a promotion. In 1760 Bernard was appointed royal governor of Massachusetts, Bookseller Inventory # 72map113

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Bibliographic Details


Publisher: [ca 1765].

Publication Date: 1765

Binding: Soft cover

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