2 Added titles: [and:] BRATTAIN, W. H. & J. BARDEEN. Nature of the Forward Current in Germanium Point Contacts. Contained in: The Physical Review, Vol. 74, No. 2, pp. 231-32, July 15, 1948. [and:] SHOCKLEY, William (1910- 1989) & G. L. PEARSON. Modulation of Conductance of Thin Films of Semi- Conductors by Surface Charges. Contained in: The Physical Review, Vol. 74, No. 2, pp. 232-33, July 15, 1948. [with:] BARDEEN, J. & W. H. BRATTAIN. Physical Principles Involved in Transistor Action. Contained in: The Physical Review, Vol. 75, No. 8, pp. 1208-1225, April 15, 1949. The Birth of the Semi-conductor…Here are the seminal papers in which their invention of the transistor was described; the tiny electronic component that changed the second half of the 20th century. In The Transistor (1948) is the primary diagram, showing the construction of the germanium triode, or transistor, a semi-conducting device which could act as an oscillator or an amplifier, thereby replacing larger, bulky, less efficient vacuum tubes. The longer 1949 paper includes this same diagram, but also contains a cutaway microphotograph of the transistor. Research by Bardeen and Brattain led them to the discovery that electron flows on the surface of a semi-conducting surface (initially silicon and germanium) may be modulated and controlled by "doping" the crystal with specific quantities and depositions of conducting elements. Hence was born the technology of microelectronics, by employing layers of "dirty sand" to build the complex electronic circuitry that we use every day today. "The transistor revolutionized the electronics industry, allowing the Information Age to occur, and made possible the development of almost every modern electronic device, from telephones to computers to missiles. [Bardeen’s] developments in superconductivity, which won him his second Nobel, are used in medical advances such as CAT scans and MRI." [Wikipedia] Bardeen, Shockley and Brattain shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956 for their invention of the transistor. "The first comprehensive report on the transistor, which had been announced in three brief papers published in The Physical Review the previous year. The transistor gradually replaced the bulkier vacuum tube, allowing heat reduction and miniaturization of electronic devices. Transistors began to be employed on a large scale in computer manufacturing in the late 1950s; they were eventually miniaturized and incorporated into microprocessors." [Norman] Norman, Origins of cyberspace, 450. Large 8vo. 5 figs. (1948 issue), 15 figs. (1949 issue); closed tear on one page of the 1949 article (not affecting text or image). Original printed green wrappers; corners and covers slightly creased, top left corner of 1948 issue partially rubbed. Housed in a handsome custom quarter brown morocco clamshell box. Very good. Scarce. Bookseller Inventory #
Title: The Transistor, A Semi-Conductor Triode. ...
Publisher: American Physical Society, 1 8-1949
Publication Date: 1949
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