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Abraham Lincoln

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From: The Raab Collection (Ardmore, PA, U.S.A.)

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About this Item: Lincoln Officially Commences the Civil War;He Orders the Blockade of the South. Abraham Lincoln. With war clouds hanging heavy over Washington in early April 1861 and the budding Confederate States of America a reality, the U.S. government seemed paralyzed and uncertain. Union General-in-Chief Winfield Scott was an exception; he developed a plan for the execution of the onrushing war. Scott's concept, later dubbed the Anaconda Plan, consisted of the blockade of the Southern seaports and control of the Mississippi River. This, he believed, would strangle the South by preventing it from exporting its crops for currency, preclude its receiving needed supplies and weapons to support its war effort, and isolate the western states from the eastern section of the Confederacy. Lincoln was aware that the blockading of ports was an act of war. In fact, since an act of war is, by implication, taken against another state, some in his cabinet argued that a blockade would constitute a tacit recognition of the sovereignty of the Confederacy, something the North was trying to avoid. Lincoln was less interested in the legal definitions than in the military utility of the plan, and he approved it despite the objections. On Friday, April 12, 1861, Confederate forces opened fire on Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor, initiating hostilities between the North and South. Lincoln immediately began moving to meet the crisis head on. The U.S. Army had less than 800 officers and only some 14,000 enlisted men, yet the federal government needed to mobilize for war. The only law in existence permitting the raising of additional troops was the Militia Act of 1792, which empowered the president to call out the militia to suppress insurrection. Using this law, on April 15, Lincoln issued a proclamation declaring that an insurrection existed, called out 75,000 men to put it down, and convened a special session of Congress for July 4.On April 19, Lincoln issued his proclamation blockading Southern ports. It provided that "a competent force will be posted so as to prevent entrance and exit of vessels" from the ports of the states in rebellion. Then, to make the proclamation official, he signed this document, authorizing "the Secretary of State to affix the Seal of the United States to a Proclamation setting on foot a Blockade of the ports of the States of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas." The seal was then affixed to the blockade proclamation, which was announced that day. It was a de facto declaration of war by the Union against the Confederacy. By the end of 1861, over 250 warships were on duty, with 100 more under construction. By 1865, some 600 ships were patrolling the Confederate coastline. Moreover, as the war progressed, the Union also intensified the blockade's effectiveness by capturing or sealing off a growing number of Southern ports. The storied blockade-runners were increasingly stymied. In the blockadeÕs first year, their chance of capture was one in ten. By 1864, the odds had become one in three, and by 1865, one in two. Strategically, the blockade was decisive. It limited both the import of military and other needed supplies and the export of income-producing cotton. "The blockade reduced the South's seaborne trade to less than a third of normal. And of course the Confederacy's needs for all kinds of supplies were much greater than the peacetime norm. As for cotton exports,.the half-million bales shipped through the blockade during the last three years of war compared rather poorly with the ten million exported in the last three antebellum years.[And] the blockade was one of the causes of the ruinous inflation that reduced the Confederate dollar to one percent of its original value by the end of the war." (James McPherson in Battle Cry of Freedom)." The authoritative Historical Times Encyclopedia Illustrated of the Civil War states ÒHistorians generally agree that the blockade, with more than 600 ships, Seller Inventory # 7590

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About this Item: 1836. No binding. Condition: Fine. Autograph Letter Signed, to Mary S. Owens, December 13, 1836, 2 pp., 9 3/4 x 7 3/4 in. "Write back as soon as you get this, and if possible say something that will please me, for really I have not been pleased since I left you."Here, Lincoln perfectly demonstrates what Owens later described as deficiencies "in those little links which make up the chain of a woman's happiness." Rather than expressing his feelings for Owens, Lincoln complains about his health and discusses political issues swirling in the Illinois General Assembly. Although inept at love, the letter offers rare insight into the young representative's thoughts on a variety of political issues. In this highly important letter to Mary Owens, a self-absorbed Lincoln complains to his potential spouse of his health, both physical and mental, and discusses political issues to the point that he describes his own letter as "dry and stupid." Perhaps more revealing than he realized, it illustrates the tension in Lincoln's early life between matters of the head, with which he was comfortable, and matters of the heart, with which he clearly was not. Complete Transcript Vandalia, Decr 13. 1836Mary I have been sick ever since my arrival here, or I should have written sooner. It is but little difference, however, as I have verry little even yet to write. And more, the longer I can avoid the mortification of looking in the Post Office for your letter and not finding it, the better. You see I am mad about that old letter yet. I dont like verry well to risk you again. I'll try you once more anyhow. The new State House is not yet finished, and consequently the legislature is doing little or nothing. The Governor delivered an inflamitory political message, and it is expected there will be some sparring between the parties about it as soon as the two Houses get to business. Taylor delivered up his petitions for the New County to one of our members this morning. I am told that he despairs of its success on account of all the members from Morgan County opposing it. There are names enough on the petitions, I think to justify the members from our county in going for it; but if the members from Morgan oppose it, which they say they will, the chance will be bad. Our chance to take the seat of Government to Springfield is better than I expected. An Internal Improvement Convention was held here since we met, which recommended a loan of several millions of dollars on the faith of the state to construct Rail Roads. Some of the legislature are for it and some against it; which has the majority I can not tell. There is great strife and struggling for the office of U.S. Senator here at this time. It is probable we shall ease their pains in a few days. The opposition men have no candidate of their own, and consequently they smile as complacently at the angry snarls of the contending Van Buren candidates and their respective friends, as the Christian does at Satan's rage. You recollect I mentioned in the outset of this letter that I had been unwell. That is the fact, though I belive I am about well now; but that, with other things I can not account for, have conspired and have gotten my spirits so low, that I feel that I would rather be any place in the world than here. I really can not endure the thought of staying here ten weeks. Write back as soon as you get this, and if possible say something that will please me, for really I have not been pleased since I left you. This letter is so dry and stupid that I am ashamed to send it, but with my present feelings I can not do any better. Give my respects to Mr & Mrs Abell and family. Your friend LincolnMiss Mary S. OwensHistoric BackgroundThis is one of the ten oldest Lincoln letters known to have survived. Although 11 leaves (9 of which are in institutions) from Lincoln's educational sum book, a few documents written or signed by Abraham Lincoln in 1832 relating to his service in the Black Hawk War (again, mos. (See website for full description). Autograph Letter Signed. Seller Inventory # 24346.99

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ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Published by Washington, D.C. (1862)

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From: Seth Kaller Inc. (White Plains, NY, U.S.A.)

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About this Item: Washington, D.C., 1862. No binding. Condition: Fine. Autograph Letter Signed, as President, to Secretary of State William H. Seward, "Executive Mansion," Washington, D.C., March 5, 1862. Signed at bottom by "William H. Seward," with a note in an unidentified contemporary hand. 1 p. 4 3/4 x 7 1/4 in. The United States is the only nation in history to end slavery through Civil War. Nations as diverse as Russia, the British Empire, France, Brazil, and others around the world ended their reliance on slave labor through legislative means that included some form of compensation to slaveowners for their lost "assets." Here, President Lincoln requests that Secretary of State William Seward summon a meeting of the Cabinet. The following day, the president presented a special message to Congress with his plan end slavery through compensation. There were no takers among the slaveholding border states. The brevity of Lincoln's letter belies its far-reaching implications and the tantalizing possibilities of "what might have been." With: [ABRAHAM LINCOLN]. Newspaper. New York Semi-Weekly Tribune. New York, N.Y., March 7, 1862. 6 pp., 16 ¾ x 20 ½ in. With "Message from the President/ Highly Important Proposition/ The Gradual Abolition of Slavery./ A Vigorous Blow to the Hopes of the Rebels." Printing Lincoln's March 5 message to Congress. Inventory #30001.29Complete Transcript "Executive Mansion March 5, 1862Hon. Sec. of State My dear Sir Please summon the Cabinet to meet me here at 7 o'clock this evening. Yours truly A. Lincoln[Signature of recipient:] William H Seward[Notation, in a third hand:] March 6th 1862 The Presidents Message to Congress, Recommending Compensated Emancipation. To preserve the Union"Historical BackgroundNearly a year into the Civil War, Lincoln had rightly concluded that the cost of continuing the war would far outreach the price tag of purchasing all the slaves in the loyal border states, terming his measure "one of the most efficient means of self-preservation" and stating "in my judgment, gradual, and not sudden emancipation, is better for all."To this end, Lincoln called for a Congressional resolution endorsing compensated emancipation and pledging federal support to states that adopted it. Paying to end slavery, he insisted, would ensure the border slave states would have nothing to gain by joining the Confederacy. Moreover, if compensated emancipation succeeded in the border states, it would serve as a model for utilizing gradual emancipation elsewhere to end the bloody conflict. Lincoln's March 6 message to Congress, preserved in the Library of Congress, contains revisions likely decided upon with his Cabinet at the meeting referenced here.A week later after this note, Lincoln wrote to California War Democratic Senator James A. McDougall, asking him to renounce his opposition to the proposal, explaining that $1,000,000 (less than one half-day's cost of the war) would buy all the slaves in Delaware at $400 per head. Lincoln further estimated that buying the freedom of the 432,622 slaves in Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri and Washington, D.C. would amount to $173,048,800 - the cost of war for 87 days. "Do you doubt," Lincoln wrote, "that taking [these] initiatory steps would shorten the war more than eighty-seven days, and thus be an actual saving of expense?" The president argued his plan's costs were minimal by comparison. "The sum thus given," he wrote to McDougall, "would not be half as onerous, as . the indefinite prosecution of the war."The idea of compensated emancipation never took root. Lincoln's plan (although not an actual law-merely a joint resolution declaring the policy) came before Congress and passed both House and Senate by large majorities on April 10, 1862. However, not one vote came from the border-state Democrats. In support of the spirit of the original resolution, Congress then passed a bill that provided for gradual, compensated emancipation in the District of Columbia. On April 16, the Preside. (See website for full description). Autograph Letter Signed. Seller Inventory # 23747

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About this Item: An Important Communication in the Power Struggle Between President Abraham Lincoln and Treasury Secretary Salmon P. Chase For Control of the Republican Party in 1864Lincoln defends his integrity to Chase, and states that such attacks are against the public interest; He criticizes the performance of ChaseÕs men in the New York Customs House, and seeks to replace them with his own menÒThis Mr. Bailey as I understand having been summoned as a witness to testify before a committee of the House of Representatives which purposed investigating the affairs of the New-York Custom-House, took occasion to call on the Chairman in advance, and to endeavor to smother the investigation, saying among other things, that whatever might be developed, the President would take no actionÉThe public interest can not fail to suffer in the hands of this irresponsible and unscrupulous man.Ó As early as December 1862 Republican leaders met to express dissatisfaction with the Lincoln administration, and there was continuing organized criticism over the next year that caused Lincoln much grief. Then in 1864 there was a movement to replace Lincoln at the head of the Republican ticket, which became strong enough that Lincoln despaired of his renomination. Lincoln put the blame squarely on Salmon Chase, his Secretary of the Treasury, whom he said was at the bottom Òof all the mischief.Ó Hiram Barney was a Republican whose wife was the daughter of noted abolitionist Lewis Tappan, who played a key role in the defense of the slaves who captured the Amistad. Lincoln was entertained by Barney while visiting New York for his Cooper Union speech in February 1860. After the speech, it was Barney who took Lincoln out to dinner at the Athenaeum Club on Fifth Avenue. Barney was a political ally of Salmon P. Chase of Ohio, who viewed Barney as his chief New York sponsor. However, Barney supported Lincoln at the May 1860 Republican National Convention when he realized that Chase was out of the running for the presidential nomination. After Lincoln was nominated, Barney traveled to Springfield to meet with Lincoln and consult regarding potential cabinet appointments. Barney enthusiastically supported the ticket and raised $35,000 in New York for the national ticket. This would be the equivalent of over $1,000,000 today.Newly inaugurated President Lincoln appointed Chase Secretary of the Treasury. The greatest prize within the Treasury Department was the collectorship of the port of New York, a place highly paid, honorable, and, through its large number of employees, a means of affecting the politics of New York City and State. Lincoln named Barney Collector of the Port of New York.Lincoln later related, ÒYou remember that when Hiram Barney was appointed, at the beginning of this administration, collector of the port of New York, everybody supposed that he was ChaseÕs selection and nobody elseÕs. Now Barney was as much my choice as he was ChaseÕs; and when (Chase, Seward, and myself standing round that table) BarneyÕs appointment was decided upon, I believe that I was the most gratified person then present.Ó But in office Barney was was a lightening rod for trouble. He was not politically active enough to suit ChaseÕs supporters, was soon out of favor with the anti-Chase faction in New York that was loyal to William Seward, appointed Democrats to posts in his department, and was widely and credibly accused of corruption. Barney made noises about resigning, but did not.Meanwhile, in early 1864, BarneyÕs enemies spread stories that he was supporting Chase for President and opposing President LincolnÕs reelection. Moreover, Lincoln had his eye on the New York customs house because he feared the embarrassing corruption scandals might hurt his chances in New York in the November election. At this time Barney had drifted into the Radical Republican orbit, and some radicals sought to replace Lincoln at the top of the ticket, with ChaseÕs at least tacit approval. So there was grow. Seller Inventory # 11578

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About this Item: Lincoln's favorite image of himself: A unique and moving Lincoln family memento of the 16th presidentThis CVD ( 2 1/2 by 4 inch carte-de-visite) of President Lincoln was produced from a negative originally taken by Mathew Brady at the Brady studio on Friday January 8, 1864. It is signed ÒA LincolnÓ along the bottom edge, with Brady's studio imprint appearing on the verso. Lincoln said of this particular portrait: ÒI have thought that if I looked like any of the likenesses of me that have been taken, I look most like that one.ÓThis CDV was brought to the market by the heir of Margaret Fristoe Beckwith, wife and heir of Robert Todd Lincoln Beckwith. Beckwith was the great-grandson of President Lincoln, and the last of LincolnÕs direct descendants. BeckwithÕs mother, Jessie, was one of two daughters of Robert Todd Lincoln and his wife Mary Harlan Lincoln. Robert was the only surviving son of Mary and Abraham LincolnÕs four children.Robert Todd Lincoln and Mary Harlan Lincoln had three children: Mary (ÒMamieÓ), Abraham II (ÒJackÓ), who died at age 16 of blood poisoning, and Jessie. Mamie married Charles Isham and had one son, Lincoln Isham who never married, and left most of his historic possessions to the Library of Congress. Jessie married Warren Wallace Beckwith in 1897. The couple had a daughter, Mary (ÒPeggyÓ) Lincoln Beckwith, and a son, Robert Todd Lincoln Beckwith. Mary never married and died childless. She spent much of her later life as a recluse at Hildene. Her death left Robert (ÒBudÓ or ÒBobÓ) Todd Lincoln Beckwith as the last surviving direct descendant of the 16th President of the United States. He married three times. His first marriage to Hazel Holland Wilson ended without issue; his second marriage to Annemarie Hoffman ended in divorce in 1976 when she was discovered to be pregnant Ð but not by Bud Beckwith. Beckwith married again in 1979, this time to divorcee Margaret Fristoe. In his final illness, Beckwith was nursed by MargaretÕs daughter, Lenora.Beckwith made donations of a portion of the Lincoln family materials to a number of institutions, including the Illinois State Library (now the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library), the Chicago Historical Society (now the Chicago History Center), the New York Historical Society, and others. But he retained some. At Bud BeckwithÕs death in 1985 this CDV, which he had retained, passed to Margaret, and at her death in 2009 it was brought to the market by her heir along with the other items Margaret had received from him. There were no other Lincoln signed photographs in that group. This one was obtained then by one of our clients, and now has been acquired by the Raab Collection. The purchaser from us will be just the second private collector ever to own this treasure of the Lincoln family, one we are proud to offer here.Signed photographs of Lincoln are quite uncommon, with a search of public sale records going back a decade revealing less than half a dozen having reached the public sale market in that time period. Of these, a few are specified as photographs of Alexander Gardner, while the others are mute on the subject. This is one of only a handful of signed Brady images to reach the market in decades. More importantly, none, in the public sale records or otherwise, have as provenance the Lincoln family itself, making this not merely a rarity but likely unique.Family lineage:Abraham (1809-1865) and Mary Todd Lincoln (1818-1882)Robert Todd Lincoln (1843-1926) married Mary E. Harlan (1846-1937)Jessie Lincoln (1875-1948) married Warren Wallace BeckwithMargaret (Peggy) Beckwith (1898-1975)Robert Todd Lincoln Beckwith (1904-1985)Margaret Fristoe Beckwith (1921-2009)By descent to her direct heir, who sold it with other Lincoln-descended items in 2010The Raab Collection, via the purchaser, 2017. Seller Inventory # 11533

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ABRAHAM LINCOLN

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About this Item: 1863. No binding. Condition: Fine. Autograph Letter Signed "A. Lincoln" as President, to Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, May 23, 1863. "Executive Mansion, Washington" stationery, 2 pp. on one sheet, 7 3/4 x 9 3/4 in. With front panel of original envelope, to which Lincoln has added an Autograph Note Signed, and Stanton has also added an Autograph Note Signed. Less than six years after he successfully sued the Illinois Central for legal fees, President Lincoln faces another problem with the railroad, now vital for the transportation of Union troops. In another dispute over payments, he tells his Secretary of War, "If I had the leisure which I have not, I believe I could settle it; but prima facie it appears to me we better settle the account ourselves." TranscriptExecutive Mansion Washington, May 23, 1863Hon Secy of War My dear Sir,In order to construct the Illinois Central Railroad, a large grant of land was made by the United States to the State of Illinois, which land was again given to the Railroad Company by the State, in certain provisions of the Charter. By the U.S. grant, certain previleges [sic]were attempted to be secured from the contemplated Railroad to the U.S., and by the Charter certain per centage of the income of the road was to be from time to time paid to the State of Illinois. At the beginning of the present war the Railroad did certain carrying for the U.S. for which it claims pay; and, as I understand, the U.S. claims that at least part of this the road was bound to do without pay. Though attempts have been made to settle the matter, it remains unsettled; meanwhile the Road refuses to pay the per-centage to the State. This delay is working badly; and I understand the delay exists because of there being no definite decision whether the U.S. will settle its own account with the Railroad, or will allow the State to settle it, & account to the State for it. If I had the leisure which I have not, I believe I could settle it; but prima facie it appears to me we better settle the account ourselves, because that will save us all question as to whether the State deals fairly with us in the settlement of our account with a third party - the R.R. I wish you would see Mr. Butler, late our State Treasurer, and see if something definite can not be done in the case. Yours truly, A Lincoln"Historical BackgroundLincoln had a long prior relationship with the Illinois Central Railroad. In 1851, although not a member of the state legislature, he participated in the struggle over the passage of the railroad's charter. Its 705 mile-long track was completed in 1856, making it the longest in the country. Lincoln represented the Illinois Central in 45 cases in the 1850s, mostly as defense attorney. The Mr. Butler mentioned was William Butler (1797-1876). He and Lincoln became friends when Butler was Clerk of the Sangamon County Circuit Court (1836-1841) and Lincoln a circuit lawyer. Butler later served as Illinois State Treasurer (1859-1862).Illinois had granted the railroad an exemption for all state taxes on the condition that it pay an annual "charter tax." However, the McLean County assessor levied a $428.57 tax on the railroad's 118 acres in that county. The railroad claimed that the General Assembly act chartering the railroad exempted it from such taxes. The railroad retained Lincoln and sued to prevent the County from selling railroad land to pay taxes. The parties agreed to go to the Illinois Supreme Court, where the only question would be whether the county had a lawful right to tax the railroad's property. In Illinois Central RR v. McLean County, Illinois & Parke, Justice Scates ruled that the charter was constitutional and that the legislature and the state could exempt property from taxation. Lincoln received $200 for his services in both courts. After consulting with fellow attorneys, Lincoln told the railroad he deserved more. According to the "Law Practice of Abraham Lincoln" website (www.lawpracticeofa. (See website for full description). Autograph Letter Signed. Seller Inventory # 22131

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About this Item: New York: Baker & Godwin, 1863., 1863. 48pp. Publisher's printed wrappers, publisher's advertisement on rear wrapper. Very good. In a blue morocco box. The earliest publication of the Gettysburg Address in book form. This edition was preceded only by the exceptionally rare sixteen-page pamphlet, THE GETTYSBURG SOLEMNITIES, known in only three copies. Lincoln made his speech at the dedication of a cemetery on the Gettysburg battlefield some four months after the bloody and pivotal battle that turned the tide of the Civil War in favor of the Union. Lincoln's speech was preceded by an address from Edward Everett, the most famous orator of his day. Everett's speech took some ninety minutes to deliver, and is largely forgotten. Lincoln's speech, delivered in only a few minutes, is immortal. It is a supreme distillation of American values, and of the sacrifices necessary for the survival of liberty and freedom. "The WASHINGTON CHRONICLE of 18- 21 November reported extensively on this ceremony and included a verbatim text of 'Edward Everett's Great Oration.' On the fourth day it noted in passing that the President had also made a speech, but gave no details. When it came to the separate publication on 22 November, Everett's 'Oration' was reprinted from the standing type, but Lincoln's speech had to be set up. It was tucked away as a final paragraph on page 16 of the pamphlet [THE GETTYSBURG SOLEMNITIES]. It was similarly treated when the meanly produced leaflet was replaced by a 48-page booklet published by Baker and Godwin of New York in the same year" - PMM. Lincoln's address appears on page 40, and parenthetical notes are added indicating "applause" and "long- continued applause." A diagram on page 32 gives the details of the Soldiers' National Cemetery at Gettysburg. HOWES E232, "b." MONAGHAN 193. GROLIER AMERICAN 100, 72 (note). STREETER SALE 1747. SABIN 23263. PRINTING AND THE MIND OF MAN 351 (ref). Garry Wills, LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG, pp.191- 204. Seller Inventory # WRCAM 49250D

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About this Item: This is the only Supreme Court circuit assignment we have ever seen reach the marketJust deaccessioned by a major private collection, where it had remained for almost three decadesAs the Civil War dawned, the Federal judiciary was divided into district circuits, which were composed of states or groups of contiguous states subject to the same Federal court. These district courts had a certain amount of autonomy, as each was subject only to the U.S. Supreme Court rather than to its fellow circuits. Each circuit was assigned to a U.S. Supreme Court justice, who was usually a resident of the circuit to which he was assigned, and that justice held court in conjunction with the Federal district judges there. This circuits system, which had remained unchanged for decades, was in a chaotic state by the end of 1861. The Southern states had seceded and their circuits were inactive, and a number of states in the West, including Iowa, Wisconsin, Kansas, Minnesota, and California, were not assigned to any circuit.In December 1861 Senator John Sherman, brother of General William T. Sherman, introduced a bill to reorganize the Federal judiciary. The idea was to equalize the circuits, which would involve changing some circuits and creating new ones, and filling the three vacancies on the Supreme Court by naming new justices from these circuits. But the states that would be involved in the reorganization had their own interests, and backed their own Supreme Court candidates (especially Iowa and Illinois), so it proved difficult to achieve agreement. By the spring of 1862 there was still no bill, and advocates of judicial reform were beginning to lose patience. Then President Lincoln refused to make any more Supreme Court appointments until a bill was passed. Faced with that strong position by the President, Congress at last completed passage of the Judicial Reorganization Act of 1862 on July 12, 1862, and Lincoln signed it on July 15.The Judiciary Act as passed subscribed to three broad ideas about the structure of the federal courts. First, it accepted the traditional notion of judicial representation that committed Supreme Court justices and district court judges to duty in the circuits. Second, it endorsed the idea of molding the federal courts to the dominant regional interests. Third, it adopted the traditional view, as expressed by President Lincoln, that the Supreme Court should be of "convenient size," in order that the number of justices equal the number of circuits. The act placed Ohio and Indiana in one circuit; Michigan, Illinois, and Wisconsin in another; and created the new trans-Mississippi Ninth Circuit consisting of Iowa, Minnesota, Kansas and Missouri. Illinois was put into a different district than Iowa, resolving that spat. All of this was accomplished by reducing the number of wholly southern circuits from five to three. Thus the Republican Congress succeeded not only in solving some important problems, but also in creating a more northern-dominated court system.Samuel Freeman Miller earned a medical degree in 1838 and practiced medicine for a decade. He remains the only physician ever to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He was, like Lincoln, a transplanted Kentuckian; an opponent of slavery and a Whig, he had removed to Iowa to find a more congenial place from which to oppose slavery. Miller was the favorite son of Iowa for a Supreme Court seat, and President Lincoln wasted little time in rewarding Iowa for helping make the Judiciary Act happen. The day after signing the act, July 16, 1862, he appointed Miller an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. Miller became the first Justice born west of the Appalachians, and the first to live west of the Mississippi. His reputation was so high that Miller was confirmed unanimously in half an hour after the Senate received notice of his nomination. Three days later Lincoln received his formal appointment and assignment to the newly created Ninth Circuit. Th. Seller Inventory # 11477

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Complete Works of Abraham Lincoln: LINCOLN, Abraham

LINCOLN, Abraham

Published by Tandy-Thomas, New York (1905)

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From: Argosy Book Store, ABAA, ILAB (New York, NY, U.S.A.)

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About this Item: Tandy-Thomas, New York, 1905. hardcover. 12 volumes, bound in 23. Presidential Edition. 1 of only 50 copies printed. Extra illustrated edition with a profusion of fine engraved portraits, views and maps, photogravures, and facsimile letters. The frontispiece in each volume is an original color watercolor depicting a log cabin. Tall 8vo, superbly bound in full crimson morocco with lovely gilt floral devices on all boards and spines; ornate inner dentelles and green morocco doublures; green silk moire endpapers; uncut edges, top edge gilt. New York: Tandy-Thomas Company, (1905). Fine. Extremely rare and beautiful set of the Presidential Edition, limited to only 50 copies. Lacking the 24th volume containing original documents. Edited by Nicolay & Hay. Seller Inventory # 256401

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AN ORATION DELIVERED ON THE BATTLEFIELD OF: Lincoln, Abraham]: Everett,

About this Item: Baker & Godwin, New York, 1863. 48pp. Publisher's printed wrappers, publisher's advertisement on rear wrapper. Repair to paper spine. Very good. In a cloth box, leather label. Rare first appearance in book form of Lincoln's magnificent Gettysburg Address. This edition was preceded only by the exceptionally rare sixteen-page pamphlet, THE GETTYSBURG SOLEMNITIES, known in only three copies. Lincoln made his speech at the dedication of a cemetery on the Gettysburg battlefield some four months after the bloody and pivotal battle that turned the tide of the Civil War in favor of the Union. His speech was preceded by an address by Edward Everett, the most famous orator of his day. Everett's speech took some ninety minutes to deliver, and is largely forgotten. Lincoln's speech, delivered in only a few minutes, is immortal. It is a supreme distillation of American values, and of the sacrifices necessary for the survival of liberty and freedom. "The WASHINGTON CHRONICLE of 18-21 November reported extensively on this ceremony and included a verbatim text of 'Edward Everett's Great Oration.' On the fourth day it noted in passing that the President had also made a speech, but gave no details. When it came to the separate publication on 22 November, Everett's 'Oration' was reprinted from the standing type, but Lincoln's speech had to be set up. It was tucked away as a final paragraph on page 16 of the pamphlet [THE GETTYSBURG SOLEMNITIES]. It was similarly treated when the meanly produced leaflet was replaced by a 48-page booklet published by Baker and Godwin of New York in the same year" - PMM. Lincoln's address appears on page 40, and parenthetical notes are added indicating "applause" and "long-continued applause." A diagram on page 32 gives the details of the Soldiers' National Cemetery at Gettysburg. Seven Gables paid $400 for the Streeter copy in 1968. HOWES E232, "b." MONAGHAN 193. GROLIER AMERICAN 100, 72 (note). STREETER SALE 1747. SABIN 23263. PRINTING AND THE MIND OF MAN 351 (ref). Garry Wills, LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG, pp.191-204. Seller Inventory # WRCAM49250A

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About this Item: This famous, oft-quoted letter, written early in the War to his Treasury Secretary, is a vivid and rare demonstration of emotion and strong loyalty of Lincoln ÒThere is an office in your department, called the ÔCommissioner of CustomsÉ I will be much obliged if you agree for me to appoint Mr. Sargent to this place.Ó Lewis Clephane was the manager of the ÒWashington EraÓ, an anti-slavery newspaper courageously operating in the nationÕs capital at a time when it was not popular to take that stand there. Harriet Beecher Stowe was one of its contributors. She wrote what became ÒUncle TomÕs CabinÓ at his request, after he asked for a story to serialize in his newspaper. In 1855 he and four other colleagues formed a group called the Republican Association of Washington, and sent forth the call for the formation of the Republican Party. The next year, he also put forth the call for the first Republican National Convention and served on its executive committee. Clephane campaigned for Lincoln in 1860, and in fact was president of the Washington Wide-Awakes. After Lincoln was elected, he changed the name of his paper to the Washington Republican. For his many services, and his political strength and support in the capital, the new President felt obliged to offer Clephane a federal position in the city, and settled on the postmastership.Nathan Sargent was a Whig who had served as sergeant at arms of the House of Representatives during Lincoln's term in Congress from 1847-9, and was then Register of the U.S. Treasury. The two were friendly at the time, and remained so afterwards. In 1859 Sargent wrote Lincoln setting forth his plan to unite the Republicans with old Whigs in the South in opposition to slavery for the 1860 election, but while Lincoln appreciated the suggestion and support, he realistically told Sargent, ÒIf the rotten democracy shall be beaten in 1860, it has to be done by the North; no human invention can deprive them of the South.Ó Sargent knew Washington, and after LincolnÕs election hoped for the postmastership for himself.Lincoln had to make a choice for Postmaster of Washington, D.C., and he chose Clephane. But he was unwilling to simply disappoint Sargent, and found another position for him, of as great or even greater import. And to accomplish the result he sought, he wrote to Secretary of the Treasury Salmon Chase.Autograph letter signed, Executive Mansion, Washington, May 10, 1861, to Chase, requesting Sargent to be given a post in the War Department. ÒMy dear Sir: I have felt myself obliged to refuse the post-office at this place to my old friend Nathan Sargent, which wounds him, and consequently me, very deeply. He now says there is an office in your department, called the ÔCommissioner of Customs,Õ which the incumbent, a Mr. Ingham, wishes to vacate. I will be much obliged if you agree for me to appoint Mr. Sargent to this place.Ó ChaseÕs endorsement on the verso reads, ÒReceived May 10 Õ61. Desires appointment of Nathan Sargent as Commissioner of Customs.ÓChase complied. Sargent served as Commissioner of Customs from 1861-67. After he retired he wrote a book, ÒPublic Men & Events from the Commencement of Mr. Monroe's Administration, in 1817 to the Close of Mr. FillmoreÕsÓ. Seller Inventory # 11580

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LINCOLN, Abraham.

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About this Item: 1863. No Binding. Condition: Very Good. No Jacket. ("A. Lincoln") in black ink on Executive Mansion, Washington, letterhead, March 18, 1863. 5" x 8", 1 page with integral leaf. Very good. Integral blank with an autograph endorsement signed by Holt and clerical endorsement from the Adjutant General's office. To Judge Advocate General Joseph Holt: Lincoln requests his Judge Advocate General to investigate the "Strong Mitigating Circumstances" surrounding the court-martial of a member of the West Point Class of 1861. "It is said Lieut. John Benson [Williams], of the 3rd regular infantry, as been sentenced by a Military Commission, to be dismissed the service. I have some reason to believe there are strong mitigating circumstances in his case, which the Commission perhaps, did not deem competent for them to consider, I will thank you to procure the record, examine it and report it to me. . ." Holt forwarded Lincoln's letter to the Adjutant General, noting that "No record or report in regard to [the Williams case] has been received at this office." The letter was returned to Holt, accompanied by the record of William's court-martial and docketed "Please see papers within." After studying the record, Holt made a lengthy report to Secretary of War Stanton, March 30, 1863, which survives in the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library. Holt dismissed the "mitigating circumstances" referenced by Lincoln - Williams's supposedly "severe sickness" - and concluded that "It is evident that Lieut. Williams left his command on the battlefield and returned to Washington, without leave and in known violation of orders and of his duty. . . .[He] has shown himself disqualified for the profession of arms." On April 8th, Stanton, in turn forwarded Holt's deposition to the President, "as requested by his note on the 18th Ulto" (that is, the present letter). Lincoln ended the matter with his own terse endorsement on April 11th: "I decline to interfere in Behalf of Lieut. Williams" (Basler 4:169). Although referred to in Basler's note regarding Lincoln's endorsement, the present letter does not appear in "The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln". Inscribed by Author(s). Seller Inventory # 604602

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About this Item: A rare war-date letter, on engraved letterhead, of the President to Major General Meade, seeking Meade's approval for an arrangement that would lead to a donation of $200 per month for the needy soldiersIn March 1864, Ulysses S. Grant was appointed by President Abraham Lincoln commander of the Union Armies. His headquarters would be with the Army of the Potomac, commanded by Gen. George G. Meade. So though Meade would retain his post as leading that army, Grant would be his superior, in command the actions of Meade's army and the other Union forces. Grant developed a strategy to defeat the Confederacy by placing his army between the rebel capital of Richmond and Gen. Robert E. LeeÕs Army of Northern Virginia. In his Spring offensive in 1864, Grant and Meade confronted Lee's army a number of times in very bloody engagements in which both sides suffered great losses. The Battles of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania were essentially draws but resulted in huge casualties. After each battle Grant's armies moved southeast to try to create a wedge between Lee and Richmond, but Lee's army successfully followed up the engagements by foiling that maneuver.The United States Sanitary Commission cared for the Union's sick and wounded soldiers and promoted clean and healthy conditions in army camps. It held fairs in certain large cities around the country, mainly in 1863-4, to raise funds for its activities. LincolnÕs personal assistance to benefit these fairs is well known, as he contributed notes, documents and signatures to be sold or auctioned at the fairs. It turns out that he also intervened on behalf of others seeking to donate to the fairs.A little known aspect of the war relates to the material left behind by the soldiers, who left a trail behind them as they moved. This included clothing and other rags that they no longer needed, were useless in their present form, or which they had to discard because the loads they carried in their backpacks were too heavy. One enterprising former soldier, John C. Swift, who had served in the Union Army from 1861-1863, wrote Lincoln on March 4 and March 9, 1864, offering to pay $200 per month to the Sanitary Commission for the exclusive privilege of picking up clothing cast off by Meade's and Grant's army. This subject touched close to Lincoln's heart so he intervened directly Meade, though it was during a period of intense conflict, when tens of thousands were fighting and dying. But realizing that there might be logistic issues, rather than insist, Lincoln left the decision up to Meade, even while indicating his own willingness.Autograph letter signed, on engraved Executive Mansion letterhead, Washington, May 25,1864, to "Major General Meade, Army of Potomac. Mr. J. C. Swift wishes a pass from me to follow your army to pick up rags and cast-off clothing. I will give it to him if you say so, otherwise not. A. Lincoln."If Meade responded, history does not take note of that response, an unsurprising development given the hostilities in which his troops were involved at the time. It is noteworthy that knowing this, Lincoln still chose to intervene on Swift's behalf, a testament to Lincoln's interest in the well-fare of the soldiers cared for by the Sanitary Commission.Just days later, the Battle of Cold Harbor would commence. Seller Inventory # 10921

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ABRAHAM LINCOLN LIFE MASK FROM THE RAAB: Volk, Leonard; [Lincoln,

Volk, Leonard; [Lincoln, Abraham]

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About this Item: Condition: Near fine. A RARE LEONARD VOLK LIFE MASK OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN FROM THE RAAB COLLECTION. A Near Fine example of Leonard Volk's Life Mask of Abraham Lincoln originally created by Leonard Volk in 1860. In 1860 Sculptor Leonard Volk made molds of the face and hands of Abraham Lincoln (1809 to 1865). The life mask reproduces Lincoln’s beardless face as it appeared during his first presidential campaign. According to Volk, getting Lincoln to sit for the casts was an adventure. Volk wrote that one morning in 1860, he was reading the newspaper and saw that Lincoln was arguing a case in Chicago. Volk immediately tracked down Lincoln at a courthouse and found him with "his feet on the edge of a table, one of his fingers thrust into his mouth, and his long, dark hair standing out at every imaginable angle, apparently uncombed for a week." The unkempt Lincoln remembered Volk. The two had met in 1858, and Lincoln had promised to sit for Volk one day. That day came on two days after their courthouse reunion. Volk remembered hearing Lincoln come up the steps to his studio. He wrote, "My studio was in the fifth story, and there were no elevators in those days, and I soon learned to distinguish his steps on the stairs, and am sure he frequently came up two, if not three, steps at a stride". Volk cast Lincoln’s face in the first sitting. Having never sat for anything but a photograph, Volk said Lincoln was unsure of what to do with himself. To break the ice, Volk’s assistant Matteo Mattei entertained Lincoln with a story about a botched casting of a Swiss gentleman’s face (one that Mattei had done alone). Apparently, Mattei’s humor warmed Lincoln to the idea of having plaster poured all over his face. Though Lincoln’s casting went quite well, Volk noted that: " being all in one piece, it clung pretty hard, as the cheekbones were higher than the jaw at the lobe of the ear. He [Lincoln] bent his head low and took hold of the mold and gradually worked it off without breaking or injury. It hurt a little, as a few hairs of the tender temples pulled out with the plaster and made his eyes water." Very shortly after their casting sessions were over, Lincoln received the Republican party nomination for president.The Mask has been replicated beginning in 1880, and replicas of it are difficult to date. However, this mask was purchased from, and once resided at, Dawn Manor and was purchased at the May 2012 sale of Helen Raab's art and antique collections held there. [As noted in the news article on the then-coming sale: "The art and antique collections of Helen Raab housed at Dawn Manor that have been seen by few but members of her family in decades will go on sale . The mansion was built in 1855 by Captain Abraham Vanderpoel, a lumber baron, signer of the Wisconsin Constitution and friend of Abraham Lincoln." Helen Raab, a noted collector in her own right, was the widow of George Raab and the sale was held at the direction of great-grandson George Raab.] Given that the Raab's were excellent and discriminating collectors, and given the signs of age to the mask itself (such as the visibility of a goodly number of Lincoln's pores, we believe that this is an early replication of Volk's Mask and estimate it to have been produced in the late 19th to early 20th Century -- perhaps between 1880 and 1910 or so. We do know that copies with the bib (where the name and 1860 date are written) are quite scarce. We have seen only one other with the bib. [In 1886 Saint-Gaudens, the collectors Thomas B. Clarke and Erwin Davis, and the journalist Richard W. Gilder together purchased the original plaster casts to present to the Smithsonian Institution. To finance the donation, they sold bronze and plaster casts after Volk’s originals, with production supervised by Saint-Gaudens.][In 1942, Helen Raab of Milwaukee bought Dawn Manor. She had it restored and remodeled by famed architect Frank Lloyd Wright. Her husband, George Raab, a famous Milwaukee artist, died the following year. Helen Ra. Seller Inventory # 512

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Abraham Lincoln

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From: The Raab Collection (Ardmore, PA, U.S.A.)

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About this Item: Agents of the Democratic Party had been convicted of forging soldierÕs ballots and casting them for their candidate, George B. McClellanThe earliest letter of a President investigating voter fraud that we have seen reach the marketIt was clear by 1863 that the vote of the Union soldiers would be a critical factor in determining the upcoming 1864 presidential election, particularly in the swing state of New York. Republicans expected to get the lionÕs share of soldier ballots, and Lincoln supporters in New York sought to allow Union soldiers to cast their votes through a proxy. New York Democrats opposed this proxy legislation, with Governor Horatio Seymour saying that if proxy votes decided the election, there would be Òa well founded doubt as to the person rightfully entitled to the Presidential office.Ó But in March 1864 the tide of approval for soldiers voting in the field, without coming back to their home precincts, swept in a popular vote, winning in New York with a the statewide margin of better than 5-1. President Lincoln wrote to General Ulysses S. Grant: ÒNew York votes to give votes to soldiers. Tell the soldiers.Ó Other states followed this lead, as the widespread conclusion was that soldiers, who were risking their lives for the Union, should be entitled to vote.The Democratic presidential game plan in 1864 also required the partyÕs candidate, General George B. McClellan, to do well among Union soldiers. McClellanÕs closest advisors fully expected him to do so. In September, Democrats, fearing that the Unionists would not stop short of intimidation to force the soldiers to support Lincoln, urged McClellan to form a veteransÕ society to offset this possibility. These clubs would generate enthusiasm, react upon the soldiers in the field, and contradict the assertion that all soldiers were for Lincoln. An organization known as the McClellan Legion grew out of this suggestion, and by October it was deeply involved in the campaign. The Unionists were quick to realize the importance of capturing the veteran and soldier vote and retaliated by organizing the Veteran Union Club.Soldiers voting in the field in 1864 would take ballots provided to them, mark them and return them to their local state election officials for counting. Republicans were aided in garnering soldier votes by the support for Lincoln at the highest chains of command; generals like Grant and Sherman are two examples. The states also appointed voting agents to visit the troops and monitor the election. For New York, Seymour appointed several dozen Democratic Party agents to see that voting by that stateÕs soldiers was conducted in accordance with its law; no agents who were members of the New York Republican Party were appointed. Two of the Democratic Party agents, Moses J. Ferry and Edward Donahoe, were arrested in Baltimore by an Army Provost Marshal. They were arraigned by a military commission in October chaired by Gen. Abner Doubleday. Specifically, the two were charged with Òconduct prejudicial to the welfare of the service, falsely impersonating and representing officers in the United States serviceÓ. They were accused of forging ballots of New York soldiers and changing votes to support Democratic candidates. Donahoe asked for an attorney while Ferry made a confession. He accused Donahoe of affixing the officerÕs name to the ballots himself. Donahoe at first denied complicity, but later confessed to having signed blanks with the name of ÒC.S. Arthur, captain and aid-de-camp;Ó but he claimed that no offense was committed inasmuch as there was no officer by that name in the service of New York or the United States. In the press dispatches, it was alleged that several dry-goods boxes of forged votes for the Democratic national and state tickets had been forwarded to New York. Ferry also implicated several other New York Democratic Party operatives. Both Ferry and Donahoe were convicted of forgery in late October, weeks before the election, and sente. Seller Inventory # 11622

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LINCOLN, Abraham.

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About this Item: 1863. No Binding. Condition: Very Good. No Jacket. ("Abraham Lincoln") in black ink on partially printed and accomplished in manuscript. Washington, DC, September 14, 1863. 7 1/2" x 9". Framed in a wooden frame, linen mat with fillets, halftone photograph of Lincoln, map of New York, and metal name plate. Framed size: 19 3/8" x 24 1/4". Document calling for a draft quota for the 11th District of New York. Lincoln's draft call of 1,945 troops for the 11th District, which includes Orange and Sullivan counties, issued not long after the July 1863 draft lottery sparked 5 days of rioting amongst New York City's German and Irish immigrants. Not located in Basler. Lincoln called a special cabinet meeting at 11 a.m. on September 14 to discuss decisions of certain judges releasing drafted men by writ of habeas corpus. (see Miers p. 207 "Lincoln Day by Day"). Signed by Author(s). Seller Inventory # 604915

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About this Item: James Smithson, the great benefactor of America, was born in 1754, the illegitimate son of Hugh Smithson, the first Duke of Northumberland. Illegitimate children were not unusual among EnglandÕs 18th century nobility, but certain opportunities were closed to them; they could not become military officers or ministers of the Church of England, two careers aristocrats commonly pursued. However, the young man attended Pembroke College at Oxford University, and there became interested in the natural sciences. He became a mineralogist and chemist. If as a youth Smithson set out to establish his name respectably, he certainly succeeded, as his research, publications, and activities in science opened doors for him, and quickly gained him the regard of his peers. He was admitted as a Fellow of the Royal Society in London, a signal honor that made him part of the scientific elite. Meanwhile, Smithson inherited a substantial amount of land from his mother, and careful management of it brought him wealth. Smithson never married and had only one close relative, a nephew named Henry James Dickinson (who later changed his name to Hungerford). In his will, Smithson left his fortune of £100,000 to his nephew. In the event of HungerfordÕs death, Smithson stipulated, the estate would pass his children - legitimate or illegitimate. But if his nephew died childless, he did Òbequeath the whole of my propertyÉto the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for the increase & diffusion of Knowledge among men.Ó Why America remains a mystery. Smithson was born around 1765 in Paris, and despite his world travels, he had never once visited the United States. He is not known to have been in regular communication with any Americans, and his papers - other than his will - never mention the United States. SmithsonÕs motivations for choosing to deed his estate to the citizens of a nation to which he seemingly had no connection may never be satisfactorily answered. Heather Ewing, SmithsonÕs biographer, suggests that his donation reflected the late-18th centuryÕs interest in a Òculture of improvement,Ó and a widespread belief that the United States would play an important role in advancing the arts and sciences. A handwritten note later discovered among SmithsonÕs papers suggests his decision was part of his search for legitimacy, perhaps even immortality. ÒThe best blood of England flows in my veins,Ó Smithson lamented, Òbut this avails me not. My name shall live in the memory of man when the titles of the Northumberlands and the Percys are extinct and forgotten.ÓIn 1829 Smithson died in Genoa, Italy. In 1835 SmithsonÕs nephew died childless, and SmithsonÕs lawyers informed American diplomats of the bequest. The gift was quite large for the time, almost equal to HarvardÕs entire endowment, which was then $600,000. Surprisingly to us today, the bequest flummoxed the government of the United States. President Andrew Jackson was unsure of the constitutional propriety of accepting the gift, and turned the matter over to Congress. Former President John Quincy Adams, then a Representative from Massachusetts, championed the gift as being consonant with Òthe spirit of the age.Ó However, Senator John C. Calhoun of South Carolina vigorously disagreed, proclaiming it Òbeneath the dignity of the United States to receive gifts of this kind from anyone.Ó He also worried about overstepping and the Federal government exercising too much power, saying ÒWe would enlarge our grant of power derived from the States of this Union.Ó The debate went on for eight years. But meanwhile, in July 1836, Congress at least agreed to send former Attorney General Richard Rush as envoy to London to secure the funds.Rush spent nearly two years at the Court of Chancery, arguing for the validity of the will and pledging Òthe faith of the United StatesÓ that the institution would indeed be built. He had to overcome formidable. Seller Inventory # 10871

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Holograph document signed four times by Lincoln: LINCOLN, Abraham.

LINCOLN, Abraham.

Published by Springfield, IL: 20 February 1851 (1851)

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About this Item: Springfield, IL: 20 February 1851, 1851. 1 page, small folio (317 x 200 mm) on pale blue paper (watermarked "Moinier's 1849"). Housed in a custom-made flap-case: black morocco spine, marbled sides; engraved portrait of Lincoln set into inside front. Double punch hole and slight horizontal creasing at head, three light lateral creases where folded, remains of tape on verso (at head), very minor toning at foot, a few minor smudges in body of document, very short closed-tear at foot (affecting the second "s" in "Commissioner"). In excellent condition, the wording of the deposition strong, clear and perfectly legible. A fascinating legal document entirely in Lincoln's hand and showing him as the hard-working "prairie lawyer" involved in the minutiae of the law: signed three times in the main deposition and again at the foot, "Abraham Lincoln Commissioner"; also signed by Thomas Lewis - one of the patentees of the "atmospheric churn" – at lower right, as witness to his own statement transcribed by Lincoln. The document opens: "Deposition of Willis H. Johnson, and Thomas Lewis, witnesses produced, sworn, and examined on oath on the 20th day of February, in the year of our Lord one thousand, eight hundred and fifty one, at the Office of Abraham Lincoln, in Springfield, in the State of Illinois, by me Abraham Lincoln, by virtue of a commission issuing out of the Supreme Court of Judicature of the People of the State of New York, to me, Abraham Lincoln ". This deposition is linked to a patent case that was long-winded and far from straightforward; it is discussed in some detail in Brian Dirck's Lincoln the Lawyer: "In 1849 [Lincoln] was hired by John Moffett, part of a three-man partnership to market and sell an 'atmospheric churn,' a device that created butter more quickly than conventional churns by injecting air directly into the cream. Moffett was not the churn's designer, that honor belonged to his partner Willis Johnson, a creative and busy Springfield inventor who also came up with new ways of processing flax and hemp, pumping water, and mixing cement. Moffett and a third party, Thomas Lewis, did the sales work, selling churns in Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Lewis racked up over $50,000 worth of sales. St. Louis had been particularly fertile ground, where he displayed the churn in front of a saloon and on the sidewalk by his hotel. Moffett's understanding was that the partners' arrangement called for selling the machine without him or Lewis earning any commission. He was therefore dismayed to learn that Lewis paid himself a $4,000 commission from the proceeds of his efforts". After the court decided Lewis should pay Moffett $1,300 Lewis appealed and the case went up to the state supreme court, "which ruled that he did not need to pay Moffett anything at all. It would have been difficult for Lincoln to find a clear distinction between progressive economic development and its retardation in this case. Nor did the patent laws seem to do much for the 'fire of genius' behind the atmospheric churn. Willis Johnson did not get anything out of the lawsuit (he tried to bring his own case against Lewis, but failed). The churn itself was worthless. During the appeal, the chief justice of the Illinois Supreme Court marveled at Lewis's ingenuity in earning so much money from peddling what was a dismal failure of a machine" (Chapter 4: 'The Energy Man', p. 89). In his deposition, Lewis states: "I am one of the patentees of what is called Johnson & Lewis' Atmospheric Churn – I, for myself and partners, did sell and transfer the principal part of our interest under the patent for said churn, in the year 1848 – I sold to " and then lists 35 individuals to whom transfers were made and names the territories they have rights to: "all England, all Canada, all Oregon, and all the United States excepting twenty counties in Illinois". Thomas Lewis (b. 1808) was a native of New Jersey. He arrived in Springfield with his family in 1837, shortly after Lincoln himself had moved the. Seller Inventory # 120381

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ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Published by Washington, D.C. (1861)

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About this Item: Washington, D.C., 1861. No binding. Condition: Fine. Autograph Letter Signed as President ("A. Lincoln"), December 28, 1861, Executive Mansion, Washington, D.C., to Henry Liebenau, Esq. 1 page, 5 x 8 in. "The appeal must be made, if at all, to the Governor." Complete Transcript Executive Mansion Washington, D.C. Dec. 28, 1861Henry Liebenau, Esq.My dear Sir: Your private letter in regard to Mr. "Burtnete" is received. I have no power to remove a Lieut Colonel appointed by the Governor of New-York. The appeal must be made, if at all, to the Governor. Yours &c, A. Lincoln.Historical BackgroundJohn W. Latson, a New York attorney, began raising a regiment in April 1861. In July, he received permission from the War Department to recruit a regiment of artillery, but his authority was revoked a month later and his recruits were consolidated with another regiment to form the 2d New York Heavy Artillery. Latson's troubles may have stemmed from his practice of securing uniforms for his men without paying a local merchant, claiming the authority of the federal government for doing so. The merchant reported Latson's actions to a justice, who had Latson arrested. He posted $500 in bail,[1] but was soon arrested again, charged with false imprisonment. After being in jail for a week, Latson made a motion to discharge the case because his accuser, Henry Farrington, was a recruit and subject to military discipline. The court granted the discharge and released Latson.[2]After his release, Latson learned that Daniel H. Burtnett, who claimed to be "Major Commanding the Coast Brigade at Fortress Monroe," had "ingratiated himself with the officers of Col. Latson's Staff, and stirred up the difficulties with a view of superseding Col. L. in command." Latson also learned that Burtnett had carried on a secret correspondence with P.G.T. Beauregard through the Confederate General's sister, who lived in New York, and had communicated with Confederates from Fortress Monroe by a "secret telegraphic wire" that he had helped to lay.[3]On September 6, 1861, Latson went to attorney William T. Birdsall's office to make out an affidavit charging Burtnett with treason. Burtnett and several other officers reportedly entered the office, confronted Latson with a loaded pistol to his head, and left with Latson's affidavit. After Latson and Birdsall reported the incident to a justice of the peace, Burtnett and the others were arrested, but the court discharged them on their promising to return for a hearing.[4]On November 2, their attorney denied the charges and filed a motion to discharge, claiming the application of an 1858 New York law that "no person belonging to the military forces shall be arrested on any civil process while going to, remaining at or returning from any place at which he may be required to attend, for the election of officers or other military duty." The Court held that the defendants were exempt and discharged them.[5]Liebenau's letter to Lincoln may have been an effort to have Burtnett discharged so he could not claim immunity based on military duty.Accompanied by Special Order No. 49 from the Headquarters of the Seventh Regiment, National Guard, detailing companies to attend the funeral of Thomas H. Higginbotham. Signed in print by Adjutant Joseph Henry Liebenau (1832-1878), Henry Liebenau's nephew and foster son.Henry Liebenau (1803-c1889). Born in New York, Liebenau was a portrait artist and inspector at the customs house in New York City. As early as 1847, he advertised to paint or embroider military flags and banners. In 1861, he helped Congressman Daniel E. Sickles raise a brigade. In August 1861, he applied to the Secretary of War for appointment as a paymaster in the army, and in October sought Lincoln's support for his application. In November 1861, he asked Lincoln to appoint him as collector at the port of Beaufort, South Carolina. After the war, Liebenau served as the corresponding secretary for the Constitutional Union Association, a conservative . (See website for full description). Autograph letter signed. Seller Inventory # 24189

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LINCOLN Abraham MESERVE Frederick Hill

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First Edition

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From: Bauman Rare Books (Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A.)

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About this Item: 1944. "(LINCOLN, Abraham) MESERVE, Frederick Hill. Photograph album. WITH: Photographs of Abraham Lincoln. No place, no date; New York: Harcourt Brace, 1944. Loose album sheets (9 by 12 inches) featuring 191 photographic images. Housed in a cloth four-fold portfolio binder. WITH: Octavo, original navy cloth, original dust jacket. $22,000.Extraordinary album comprising over 191 photographs, primarily silver and platinum prints, of Abraham Lincoln, his family, and contemporaries assembled by Frederick Meserve. Accompanied by the first trade edition of Meserve's landmark work, accomplished in collaboration with Carl Sandburg, Photographs of Abraham Lincoln, featuring 100 images of the 16th President, in daguerreotypes, cartes-de-visite, stereoviews, and more by photographers including Matthew Brady, Alexander Gardner, and Alexander Hesler.Photographer "Frederick Hill Meserve was an important collector of Lincoln photographs. Sandburg asserts that 'it is quite probable that certain Lincoln photographs would not have come to light but for Meserve'" (University of Illinois). This unbound photograph album appears to confirm that assertion. In 191 photographs, some of which bear penciled identification in Meserve's hand, Meserve carefully creates a tableau of Lincoln's life in portraiture, capturing both Lincoln and his social circle—the friends, acquaintances, political figures, and social reformers who shaped him. The photographs, primarily silver and platinum prints, each measure 2-1/4 by 3-1/2 inches, and are inserted into double-sided loose album pages, which are housed in a cloth portfolio. The first portion of the album, hand-numbered from 1-100 in pencil, featured 94 portraits of Lincoln arranged chronologically. The subsequent pages house an additional 91 images, which include additional portraits of Lincoln, as well as Mary Todd Lincoln, Robert Todd Lincoln, John Wilkes Booth, John Brown, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Stephen Douglas, Jefferson Davis, General Grant, General Sherman, President Hayes, and many other luminaries of the period. The purpose of the album is unclear, but it may have served as a working set of prints used by Meserve as he prepared the first volume of Photographs of Abraham Lincoln for publication. In 1911, Frederick Hill Meserve privately published his landmark work, Photographs of Abraham Lincoln, featuring 100 photographs of the 16th President that he had collected over many years including daguerreotypes, cartes-de-visite, stereoviews, and other formats by photographers such as Matthew Brady, Alexander Gardner, and Alexander Hesler. Meserve published additional volumes over the ensuing years featuring other portraits of Lincoln and his associates, an endeavor that coincided with the growth of his personal photograph collection, which grew to over 70,000 pieces. It was only recently acquired by the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale. This trade edition of Photographs of Abraham Lincoln is preceded by numerous privately printed editions and privately printed supplements that commenced publication in 1911. Album extremely good, with mild toning to page edges and a few corners torn, some photographs lightly silvered. An exceptional photographic archive.". Seller Inventory # 107267

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LINCOLN, ABRAHAM.) Gardner, Alexander.

Published by New York: Mathew Brady (1862)

Photograph

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About this Item: New York: Mathew Brady, 1862. No Binding. Condition: Near Fine. Albumen silver print (7 x 9 in.), original printed mount with neat identifications of the figures in pencil. Surface lightly cleaned, mount trimmed at edge. A handsome example with the original printed Brady mount with title, copyright notice, “Gardner, Photographer,” “M. B. Brady, Publisher,” and date October 3, 1862. This photograph of Lincoln at Antietam is one of the best-known images of the Civil War. The Battle of Antietam, fought on September 17, 1862, was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history. The Confederate withdrawal was sufficiently heartening for Lincoln to announce his Emancipation Proclamation, which had been withheld awaiting a victory. Two weeks later Lincoln came to survey the Maryland battlefield, to see the troops, and to confront George McClellan, commander of the Army of the Potomac, who had failed to pursue Lee’s army. Soon after the engagement, Alexander Gardner and other photographers working for Mathew Brady came to the battlefield, capturing the carnage in dozens of photographs and then documenting Abraham Lincoln’s tour of the battlefield on October 3. In an unprecedented exhibition, Mathew Brady displayed Gardner’s Antietam photographs in New York. “Mr. Brady has done something to bring home to us the terrible reality and earnestness of war. If he has not brought bodies and laid them in our dooryards and along the streets, he has done something very like it. At the door of his gallery hangs a little placard, ‘The Dead of Antietam ’” (New York Times, October 20, 1862). Not long after Brady’s Antietam exhibition, Gardner struck out on his own, establishing his own gallery in Washington. Lincoln would sit for him more than any other photographer. The photograph shows, from left to right: Colonel Delos B. Sacket, Captain George Monteith, Lieutenant Colonel Nelson B. Sweitzer, General George W. Morell, Colonel Alexander S. Webb (Chief of Staff, 5th Corps), General George B. McClellan, Scout Adams, Dr. Jonathan Letterman (Army Medical Director), unidentified soldier, President Abraham Lincoln, Colonel Henry J. Hunt, General Fitz-John Porter, Joseph C. G. Kennedy, Colonel Frederick T. Locke, General Andrew A. Humphreys, and Captain George Armstrong Custer (Ostendorf p. 107). This is a classic photograph of Abraham Lincoln with the troops in the field, bearing the imprints of Mathew Brady and Alexander Gardner, the two most important figures in Civil War photography. Ostendorf, Lincoln’s Photographs: A Complete Album O-62. Seller Inventory # ABE-1509636751855

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About this Item: He acts the day the disastrous Battle of Fredericksburg ends, as wounded Union soldiers and ÒcontrabandsÓ flood into Washington The chaplain felt a calling and would work mostly without pay, selflessly donating his time and labor to the freedmen, and LincolnÕs note makes it clear he wants him employedOver 40,000 escaped slaves sought refuge and freedom in Washington, D.C. after the passage of the D.C. Emancipation Act in April 1862, which freed all enslaved persons in the District of Columbia. In addition, as the Union Army advanced on southern strongholds, thousands of slaves in their path made their way across Union lines to freedom, becoming what was known as "contraband.Ó The increasing numbers of contraband coming into Washington created a dilemma for the Federal Government and the Union Army responsible for both the protection of the capital and the pursuit of victory over the Confederates. How would these African-American men, women, and children find food, shelter, and medical care? In an effort to meet this challenge, in late spring of 1862 the Union Army established a camp and hospital to serve them. It became a safe haven for these former slaves and a center of government sponsored contraband relief efforts in Washington. The Contraband Camp and Hospital were constructed as one-story frame buildings and tented structures built by the Union Army to serve as temporary housing and hospital wards for black civilians and soldiers. Separate wards for men and women were established as well as separate tented wards for smallpox patients. In addition to the hospital wards, there was a stable, commissary, dead house (morgue), ice room, kitchen, laundry, dispensary, and living quarters. Within the camp thousands of contraband found refuge and medical care, and by the end of 1863, they had processed over 15,000 individuals and had 685 residents. The hospital hired nurses primarily from within the population of fugitive slaves and employed the largest number of black surgeons among U.S. military hospitals. In fact, the Contraband Hospital was one of the few medical facilities in Washington to treat African-Americans and broke the color barrier when it appointed Alexander T. Augusta surgeon-in-charge in May 1863.Rev. Isaac Cross was an minister in the Methodist Episcopal Church of New Jersey, with a history of working for relief of impoverished African-Americans. After the Civil War got underway, and wounded Union soldiers and masses of freedmen packed Washington, Cross decided to play an active role in serving their spiritual needs. In November 1862 Cross obtained a letter from the Newark Conference of his church stating that he was Òqualified, in their judgment, to receive the appointment of chaplain in the service of the United States.Ó This commendation was signed over a dozen officials and pastors in the church, a chaplain in the Hospital Department in New Jersey, H. J. Johnson, the colonel of the 8th N.J. Regiment, and by a major general in the New Jersey militia. Cross also had a certification dated December 1, 1862, from his Conference that he was a minister Òin good and regular standingÓ, and moreover ÒHis Christian and ministerial deportment are such as to commend him to the confidence of the Federal authoritiesÉÓCross brought these to President Lincoln in person on December 15, 1862. just as the disastrous Battle of Fredericksburg was winding up, and wounded soldiers were beginning to stream into the hospitals in and around Washington. To show LincolnÕs state of mind at the time, just three days later Lincoln would tell a friend, ÒWe are now on the brink of destruction.Ó Lincoln heard Cross express his desire to minister to those in the hospitals, specifically naming the Ebenezer Church and Odd Fellows Hall Hospitals in Washington. Autograph Note Signed as President, Washington, December 15, 1862, setting in motion the appointment of Cross that would culminate in his service as chaplain to the Contraband Camp and Hospi. Seller Inventory # 11130

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LINCOLN, ABRAHAM.) Gardner, Alexander

Published by Washington (1865)

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About this Item: Washington, 1865. No Binding. Condition: Fine. The hanging of the Lincoln assassination conspirators. Within two weeks of Lincoln’s death, eight accused conspirators were in custody. President Andrew Johnson ordered a trial by military commission. After a seven-week trial in May and June, the commission retired to deliberate. On July 5 Johnson approved the verdicts and sentences including four death sentences. On July 6 the verdicts were revealed, and the very next day the four executions were carried out simultaneously. The convicted conspirators were stunned to learn that they were to be executed immediately. Alexander Gardner, the leading photographer in Washington, secured permission to document the carefully orchestrated event for which tickets were hotly contested. He made a series of ten images documenting the execution. This dramatic photograph shows the preparation for the hanging of the conspirators (from left to right): Mary Surratt (at whose boarding house the conspirators met) Lewis Powell (who attempted to assassinate Secretary of State William Seward) David Herold (who assisted John Wilkes Booth in his flight from Washington) George Atzerodt (who conspired to assassinate Vice-President Andrew Johnson) This photograph was the sole Alexander Gardner view used as a double-page spread in the standard work on the subject, which observed: “Adjusting the Ropes. The conspirators are bound, hooded, and fitted with nooses. On the right, Atzerodt, the last to be bound, recoils at what he sees” (Swanson and Weinberg, Lincoln’s Assassins: Their Trial and Execution, plate 190). Officials hold umbrellas to block the sun while preparations are made for the hanging. Men below the platform await the order to knock away the posts holding the trapdoors in place. This momentous image is one of the first news photographs. Albumen print (8 3/4 x 6 3/4 in.), mounted. Some chipping to mount. Manuscript caption on mount “preparing for the Execution of President Lincoln’s Conspirat[ors], Jail yard Washington, D.C. July 7th, 1865.” Some fading, but generally in good condition. Seller Inventory # ABE-15971286647

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LINCOLN, ABRAHAM.) Whipple, J. A.

Published by Boston: J. A. Whipple (1860)

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About this Item: Boston: J. A. Whipple, 1860. No Binding. Condition: Near Fine. Albumen print (13 1⁄4 x 11 1⁄2 in.), original printed mount with Whipple imprint and title “Home of Abraham Lincoln,” early erroneous inscription “Original photograph made in 1858 or 1859.” Minor wear and soiling, crease at upper right. Abraham Lincoln at his home in Springfield. “Lincoln stands on the terrace of the only house he ever owned. He called it his ‘little brown cottage’ and bought it for $1500 in 1844 from the Reverend Charles Dresser, an Episcopal rector who had married the Lincolns in 1842. Here Lincoln’s sons Eddie, Willie, and Tad were born, and here he was living when elected President” (Ostendorf). Lincoln stands with his sons Willie and Tad, who is barely visible behind a post. Lincoln left Springfield for Washington on February 11, 1861. In his farewell address, he told the people of Springfield, “My friends, no one, not in my situation, can appreciate my feeling of sadness at this parting. To this place, and the kindness of these people, I owe everything. Here I have lived a quarter of a century, and have passed from a young to an old man. Here my children have been born, and one is buried. I now leave, not knowing when, or whether ever, I may return, with a task before me greater than that which rested upon Washington. Without the assistance of the Divine Being who ever attended him, I cannot succeed. With that assistance I cannot fail. Trusting in Him who can go with me, and remain with you, and be everywhere for good, let us confidently hope that all will yet be well. To His care commending you, as I hope in your prayers you will commend me, I bid you an affectionate farewell.” The photographer, John Adams Whipple (1822-1891) was a pioneering American photographer and inventor who owned a successful photography studio in Boston. “Whipple was instrumental in the development of the glass negative/paper positive process in America” (Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography). Lincoln was chosen as the Republican nominee for the presidency on May 18, 1860. Whipple journeyed to Illinois that summer to photograph the rising political star at his home in Springfield. This rare large-format print bears Whipple’s imprint and address. Large-format photographs of Abraham Lincoln and his family are rare. Ostendorf, Lincoln’s Photographs O-38. Seller Inventory # ABE-1509569541953

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LINCOLN, Abraham

Published by [n.p.], Massachusetts (1863)

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First Edition

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From: B & L Rootenberg Rare Books, ABAA (Sherman Oaks, CA, U.S.A.)

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About this Item: [n.p.], Massachusetts, 1863. FIRST EDITION. Mounted on cloth, folded in quarters, minor splitting a center fold; light soiling and edgewear with minor chips (without loss of text), very light annotations in ink on verso (visible to recto right margin). Overall an excellent example of this rare and important broadside. First printing of the first proclamation of Thanksgiving as a national holiday. This original broadside produced in Massachusetts is formatted in two halves, the top being Governor John A. Andrew's announcement of Lincoln's Proclamation dated July 27, 1863, and the bottom being Lincoln's actual proclamation dated July 15, 1863, announcing that August 6 shall be set aside as a National Day of Thanksgiving. Though the exact printing date is unknown, it can be assumed that it was printed within the week following July 27.Thanksgiving was observed as a holiday since colonial times and each state would set aside its own day for celebration. This proclamation was the first time that the holiday would be celebrated on a set day nationwide, making it the first observed Thanksgiving as a national holiday.Later the same year, on October 3, 1863, Lincoln made a second proclamation again announcing Thanksgiving as a holiday, but this time in November, a date closer to the time most states had been celebrating it in the past. This earlier proclamation is actually the first time Thanksgiving was given national status, but because the second proclamation was widely accepted, the knowledge of this earlier one has been somewhat forgotten, making this piece a rare and important document in the annals of American history.Though this broadside is for the State of Massachusetts, no other broadsides from any other states announcing this date are known to exist, and only three other copies of this rare document are located through OCLC. Seller Inventory # 11224

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Lincoln, Abraham: Johnson, Andrew: Seward, William H.:

Published by Washington, D.C. May 29, 1865. (1865)

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From: William Reese Company - Americana (New Haven, CT, U.S.A.)

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About this Item: Washington, D.C. May 29, 1865., 1865. [2],4pp. Folio. Single folio leaf tipped onto a single folded folio sheet. Minimal edge sunning, else fine. A fine copy of the official government printing of various amnesty proclamations issued by Presidents Lincoln and Johnson during and just after the Civil War. The first page is a form circular from Secretary of State, William H. Seward, giving rules and regulations for administering and recording the amnesty oath, issued on May 29, 1865. Appended are copies of President Johnson's Amnesty Proclamation of the same date, and President Lincoln's proclamations of amnesty and pardon, dated Dec. 8, 1863 and March 26, 1864. Johnson issued his amnesty proclamation for the benefit of those in the Confederacy who had not availed themselves of Lincoln's earlier announcements. "There are eleven classes of people not included in Johnson’s amnesty, beginning with 'civil & diplomatic officers or otherwise domestic or foreign agents of the pretended Confederate government'" - Goodspeed. Seward's circular and the proclamations are sometimes each found separately, but are rarely found together. A rare and highly important item, with only three copies in OCLC, at the Lincoln Presidential Library, the Allen County Public Library, and the Lincoln Museum. Not in Monaghan. GOODSPEED 524:106 (without the Seward circular). OCLC 62879317. Seller Inventory # WRCAM 49950

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AN ORATION DELIVERED ON THE BATTLEFIELD OF: Lincoln, Abraham; Everett,

Lincoln, Abraham; Everett, Edward

Published by Baker and Godwin (1863)

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From: Bookbid (Beverly Hills, CA, U.S.A.)

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About this Item: Baker and Godwin, 1863. Hardcover. Condition: Fine. No Jacket. 1st Edition. Baker & Godwin, New York, 1863. 8vo. 48pp. "Four score and seven years ago.": the earliest publication of the Gettysburg Address in book form, preceded only by the exceptionally rare sixteen-page pamphlet, The Gettysburg Solemnities, known in only three copies. Bound in recent hardcover. Several pages attached with recent restoration paper stubs. Lincoln made his speech at the dedication of a cemetery on the Gettysburg battlefield some four months after the pivotal battle that turned the tide of the Civil War in favor of the Union. Lincoln's speech was preceded by an address from Edward Everett, the most famous orator of his day. Everett's speech took some ninety minutes to deliver, and is largely forgotten. Lincoln's speech, delivered in only a few minutes, is immortal. It is a supreme distillation of American values, and of the sacrifices necessary for the survival of liberty and freedom. "The Washington Chronicle of 18-21 November reported extensively on this ceremony and included a verbatim text of 'Edward Everett's Great Oration.' On the fourth day it noted in passing that the President had also made a speech, but gave no details. When it came to the separate publication on 22 November, Everett's 'Oration' was reprinted from the standing type, but Lincoln's speech had to be set up. It was tucked away as a final paragraph on page 16 of the pamphlet [The Gettysburg Solemnities]. It was similarly treated when the meanly produced leaflet was replaced by a 48-page booklet published by Baker and Godwin of New York in the same year" (PMM). Lincoln's address appears on page 40, and parenthetical notes are added indicating "applause" and "long-continued applause." A diagram on page 32 gives the details of the Soldiers' National Cemetery at Gettysburg. Howes E232, "b"; Monaghan 193; Grolier, American 100, 72 (note); Streeter Sale 1747; Sabin 23263; cf. Printing and the Mind of Man 351; Garry Wills, Lincoln at Gettysburg, pp.191-204. Housed in a custom-made collector's slipcase. Seller Inventory # 1503132

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Lincoln, Abraham.

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From: Houle Rare Books/Autographs/ABAA/PADA (Palm Springs, CA, U.S.A.)

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About this Item: Soft cover. Condition: Very Good. ("Abraham Lincoln"), in black ink, Washington, February 10, 1862. Folio. Partially printed document on vellum accomplished in a secretarial hand. Blue wafer seal intact. Lincoln's signature is dark. Appointment of Ethan A[llen] Hitchcock to the rank of Major General of Volunteers. Boldly co-signed by Edwin Stanton, Secretary of War, and Adjutant General L. Thomas (a few small holes at the folds, else fine, fresh and dark). Lincoln (1809-65), 16th President of the United States (1861-65) and one of the most important figures in American history. Hitchcock (1798-1870), Graduated West Point in 1817; served in Florida war; later with Winfield Scott in Mexico. He was commissioned Major-General of Volunteers (as per this document) in 1862 and rendered many valuable services to Lincoln's administration and the Union Army (see Basler's Lincoln for numerous references to him). Signed by Author(s). Seller Inventory # 600008

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About this Item: He assists him after the boy was refused army enlistment because of his ageAn uncommon autograph, showing Lincoln's tender-heartedness and compassion as President, and his concern for the boys of the Civil War Lincoln earned a reputation as a deeply compassionate and kind man, and this reputation reached from the battlefields into American legend. This is the picture that has come down to us, and we envision him as a man who was generous of spirit, who pardoned soldiers who fell asleep on guard duty, showed leniency whenever possible, and aided the needy. Because of his position as President, he had opportunities to prove or disprove this reputation, as many requests for assistance, pardons, deferrals of executions, and pleas to aid soldiers came to him. His writings show that he seldom turned the needy aside.Lincoln always displayed this compassion in his treatment of the young, perhaps due to his having lost three of his own when they were still young. It is uncommon for any autograph or document of Lincoln's relating to them to reach the marketplace, this being one of that small number.Here, on February 28, 1865, he intervenes to find government employment for a boy too young for military service, and whose mother was sickly and unable to support herself. Autograph endorsement signed, Washington, February 28, 1865. ÒI shall be obliged if any Department or Bureau can give this young man the employment he seeks.Ó The boy had prepared a letter for the President asking directly for aid. Although only part of his letter is still present, and his name is unknown, we learn a great deal from the portion that remains. He wrote, ÒÉbeing considered too young to join in the service of his country after twice making the attempt, desires to get employment in one of the departments as assistant messenger, and by that to help support his mother who is aged and not able to support herself. His father served in the War of 1812 and has been dead some six yearsÉÓ. The endorsement having no addressee, it is clear that he received it from the President in person, with the intention of walking the endorsement around to departments in search of work.Throughout his presidency, anyone could come and see President Lincoln just by showing up, and discuss with him any subject. LincolnÕs open office door policy and remarkable accessibility had a powerful and personal effect on the nation. Originally he had no time limits, but eventually was required to limit the general public to twice weekly, for five hours each session, from 10 a.m. until 3 p.m. By warÕs end the public hours were cut back to three hours per session. Under the revised system, Lincoln joked, every applicant had to take his turn "as if waiting to be shaved at a barber's shop." So this boy had walked into the PresidentÕs office, and walked out with this endorsement. Seller Inventory # 11521

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About this Item: 1901. No binding. Condition: Fine. Imperial photo from original Alexander Gardner negative taken on August 9, 1863, the day before the official opening of Gardner's Washington, D.C. studio. Printed by M. P. Rice, from Gardner's original plate, ca. 1901, with Rice's copyright notice near bottom right. 13 3/4 x 16 5/8 in. visible; framed 24 3/4 x 28 5/8 in. Ostendorf pose O-71C. Though this just missed being printed in the 19th century, very few photographs of Lincoln of this rare size and clarity survive. Historical BackgroundOn August 9, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln and his personal secretary John Hay visited the new studio of Alexander Gardner, on the corner of 7th and D Streets, over Shephard and Riley's Bookstore. Lincoln had promised to be Gardner's first sitter and chose Sunday to avoid curiosity seekers while on his way there. The President posed for at least six photographs, including this one, which was one of four taken simultaneously with a multi-lens camera and a single glass plate. The images captured that day included both seated and standing poses.Hay noted in his diary that the President "was in very good spirits. He thinks that the rebel power is at last beginning to disintegrate; that they will break to pieces if we only stand firm now." The President was also "very anxious that Texas should be occupied and firmly held" in view of French intervention in Mexico that began in 1861 and later culminated in the installation of Maximilian as Emperor of Mexico in 1864. Only two months earlier, in June 1863, French forces had captured Mexico City, forcing the republican government of Benito Juarez to flee.The same day he sat for this photograph, Lincoln had written to General Ulysses S. Grant about the recruitment of African American soldiers. Since he signed the Emancipation Proclamation seven months earlier, cooperative army officers and others had been recruiting free blacks and former slaves for the army. "I believe it is a resource which," he wrote to Grant, "if vigorously applied now, will soon close the contest. It works doubly, weakening the enemy and strengthening us." He also expressed his concern to Grant about re-establishing the national authority in Western Texas as soon as possible."[1]Alexander Gardner (1821-1882) was born in Scotland and emigrated to the United States in 1856, with an interest in photography. He began working for Matthew Brady and continued until 1862, when he established his own studio. Gardner initially specialized in large Imperial photographs. In 1858, Brady put Gardner in charge of his Washington, D.C. studio, where the beginning of the Civil War spurred a demand for portraits of soldiers leaving for war. Gardner served as a staff photographer under General George B. McClellan, commander of the Army of the Potomac, in 1862, and ended his work for Brady. He photographed the aftermath of the Battle of Antietam and developed photographs in his traveling darkroom. He also photographed several later battles of the Civil War, including Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, and the siege of Petersburg. Gardner photographed Lincoln a total of seven times between 1862 and 1865. After publishing a two-volume photographic work on the Civil War in 1866 that did not sell well, Gardner turned from photography to help found an insurance company.Moses P. Rice (1839-1925) was born in Nova Scotia. He and two of his brothers were photographers in Nova Scotia late in the 1850s, but by 1861, he moved to Washington, D.C., where he became an assistant photographer to Matthew Brady and to Alexander Gardner. Rice later opened his own studio, Moses P. Rice and Sons, in Washington, D.C., and operated it into the twentieth century Rice began selling photographs of Lincoln as early as 1865, and in 1891 and 1901 copyrighted images of the 16th President.ConditionSome touch ups by pen, which is typical on a photograph of this size and age.[1] Abraham Lincoln to Ulysses S. Grant, August 9, 1863, Roy P. Basler et al. (See website for full description). Photo. Seller Inventory # 24778

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