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Leela Gujadhur Sarup

Published by Aldrich International, Kolkata (2006)

ISBN 10: 8190337114 ISBN 13: 9788190337113

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Item Description: Aldrich International, Kolkata, 2006. Hardbound. Book Condition: As New. New. In the initial stages Indian natives were shipped to work as slaves. In the 19 century life terms convicts were taken to Mauritius Australia and Ben coolies to build roads bridges barracks etc. for the British Government. Finally indentured labour were sent to Mauritius from 1834 to 1839 under unregulated control as admitted by the East India Company in their later reports. People were so poor that they must not have hesitated to change their names castes and villages and it is also possible that they had no surviving family members when they volunteered or were forced to emigrate to new shores. Entire villages were wiped out due to regular famines and epidemy of diseases. The Portuguese British French Dutch and many others took advantage of the poverty of the Indian natives. The French took their Indian labourers from Pondicherry Mahe Karikal and Chandernagore the Dutch from Bengal from Hooghly and Chinsurah and the Danish from Srerampore in Bengal while the Portuguese had a free hand from almost the entire coast of Western India. The East India Company ceased to be a trading body in 1833 and the Governor General of Bengal was henceforth known as the Governor General of India. Lord Bentinck was the first Governor General of India and Bengal. It was under his rule that the first batches of indentured labourers were sent to Mauritius from 1834. At first private recruiting agents were sent from Mauritius to recruit labourers. Although people from Upper Bengal Bihar and Orissa were flocking to Calcutta for employment in John's Company (as the East India Company was known) it is hard to understand as to why G.C. Arbuthnot the private agents from Mauritius recruited 36 hill coolies from Chota Nagpur a belt known as Santhal Parganas now in Jharkhand and Bihar are till today the most backward tribal people in India. From 1834 to 1837 the East India Company officials paid little attention to the indentured labour emigration. It is only when much hue and cry was raised by public speeches in Calcutta and London that the East India Company sat up took note declared an embargo on emigration to Mauritius which lasted from 1838 to 1842. The Colonial Emigration Acts came on the scene in 1837 and hence proper regulation started only from 1842 43 when the embargo was lifted. After many enquiry committee's reports involving the Parliament in England that emigration of the Indian Native changed course drastically. 376 pp. Bookseller Inventory # 73859

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Leela Gujadhur Sarup

Published by Aldrich International, Kolkata (2006)

ISBN 10: 8190337114 ISBN 13: 9788190337113

Used Hardcover

Quantity Available: 1

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Item Description: Aldrich International, Kolkata, 2006. Hardbound. Book Condition: As New. New. In the 1880s emigration was entering its 50 years starting with Mauritius from 1834. Barring a period of four years when an embargo was clamped on emigration to Mauritius (1838 1842) and brief stoppages of emigration to the French and Dutch colonies emigration to the colonies can be considered as one of the largest industry in the world in the 19 century. Shipping became another very large industry with ships tonnage and size increasing year by year to accommodate emigrants and then to carry provisions to the colonies. The age of sails were gradually being replaced by the steam ships. A voyage by sailing ships from Calcutta from the 1830 to the 1860s took upto two months to Mauritius three to five months to the West Indies. When the steam ships appeared The Malda took 17 days to reach Mauritius from Calcutta in 1874 75 against journeys ranging from 30 to 60 days depending on the weather. Similarly The Brechin Castle in 1875 76 took 73 days to reach Trinidad from Calcutta against 100 200 days. The Blenheim and The Enmore took 25 to 27 days to reach Natal from Calcutta in 1874 75 against the normal 40 to 70 days. Mortality on long voyages by sailing ships reduced considerably on the short voyages by steam ships that offered better accommodation and vastly improved ventilation in the lower decks where stuffiness was the main cause of bacteria and fatal diseases. When crops were abundant recruitment of emigrants became difficult. Famine continued to plague India and in 1884 during the period of these Annual reports although records show there was a scarcity of food the mortality figures were estimated at over 750 000 people in Southern and South Eastern Panjab. There were famines in 1884 85 in Bengal Bihar Chota Nagpore Bellary and Anantpur district in Madras in 1886 87 the Central Provinces in 88 89 Behar in 1889 in Orissa in 1888 89 in Ganjam (Madras) and the total mortality was reported to be 1 500 000 people. We can safely conclude that the figures were much higher. However emigration continued as before. The deserted abandoned neglected islands vast territories on the continents were thereby developed by Indian Indentured Labour. The Colonial Emigration Acts may be referred to for guidance of conditions and terms under which emigration took place. 494 pp. Bookseller Inventory # 73860

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Leela Gujadhur Sarup

Published by Aldrich International, Kolkata (2007)

ISBN 10: 8190337106 ISBN 13: 9788190337106

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Item Description: Aldrich International, Kolkata, 2007. Hardbound. Book Condition: As New. New. Steps were taken towards the end of the eighteenth century to bring slavery to an end which culminated in 1833 only in the British colonies. The following gives an insight to the matter as well as inland immigration a precursor to the Foreign Immigration. The movement for abolition of slavery in the British colonies started around the latter part of the eighteenth century. A motion was tabled in the British Parliament in 1807. The House of Commons approved the prohibition of Slave Trade and by 1823 envisaged abolition of slavery and issued a circular for better treatment of slaves. In 1828 Colour Bar was abolished in the British Colonies. Finally in 1833 slavery throughout the British Empire was abolished. On August First 1834 twenty millions pound sterling was approved by the Imperial Treasury to be released as compensation to the owners of the slaves. The slave owners of Mauritius received a little over two millions pound sterling and in other British Colonies £19 was paid for the release of each slave. Perhaps this humanitarian gesture has no parallel in history yet at the same time when steps for abolition of slavery was being taken in England the British were successful in destroying the handloom industry in India depriving thousands and thousands of weavers of their livelihood. Up to the first quarter of the nineteenth century India was exporting cotton fabrics but by mid nineteenth century India was importing only. Earlier from about 1828 to 1833 private agents also took a few slaves from India to Mauritius which was basically a colony of slaves till 1834. In 1835 61 045 slaves were released in Mauritius. In 1897 there were 60 000 black slaves in the colony brought mostly from Mozambique on the east coast of Africa by the French settlers. Emigration started by the East India Company whose European soldiers and Indian sepoys actually annexed Mauritius in 1810 became a matter of pride for the British Crown from 1860 onwards. The British first came to India in the early seventeenth century for trading only which lasted for 220 years from about 1610 to when the Monopoly of trade of the East India Company was abolished in 1833. In 1765 the East India Company received the Diwani or revenueship of Bengal Bihar and Orissa. Governance of parts of India by the East India Company lasted only 25 years (1833 1858) though the company was annexing state after state within India from about 1800 to 1857. The British Crown actually ruled India for only 89 years within which time they annexed surrounding countries to make India one of the largest empire in the world. The Indian natives became their subjects and sending them under the garb of emigration by creating manmade famine conditions became a routine. Anyway it was a blessing in disguise. 416 pp. Bookseller Inventory # 73861

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Leela Gujadhur Sarup

Published by Aldrich International, Kolkata (2008)

ISBN 10: 8190337106 ISBN 13: 9788190337106

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Item Description: Aldrich International, Kolkata, 2008. Hardbound. Book Condition: As New. New. The reports in this volume pertain to a very important period in the History of India. The 1850s saw the end of governance by the East India Company and the emergence of the British Crown as the sole ruler of the sub continent. The Sepoy Mutiny took place in 1857 and before restoration of authority in 1858 improvements were constantly being made in the matter of emigration which came under the control of the British Crown from 1858. A treaty was signed between the French and British in 1860 allowing emigration of Indian Natives from the British controlled territories to the French Colonies of Martinique Cayenne Reunion and Guadeloupe. It may be noted here that Indian emigrants from the French controlled territories of Pondicherry Karikal Mahe and Chandernagore were already being dispatched from these places the terms of employment are not known but one can conclude that the conditions were not rosy at all. After signing a Treaty with the British even the French were also required to repatriate the Indian Labourers free of cost after a contract of five years they calculated 365 days x 5 years = 1825 days they deducted 52 Sundays and Gazetted holidays and decided to make the Indian Labour work on alternate days thus stretching their contracts for Ten years. Whoever managed to return to India from the French Colonies returned as Paupers France abolished slavery in their colonies in 1848 hence no records of any Indian native is available in India or in their colonies. As per records of the Proceedings the Parliament in England was not interested in promoting Emigration from India but was compelled to take decisions as almost all their colonies around the World kept on requesting for Indian Labourers. Whatever decision was taken in England was always for the welfare of the Emigrants. The Colonies adopted Ordinances after Ordinances and the fates of the emigrants did not improve till the 20 century by which time their children and grand children had a base and were bent to improve their lot. Today Indians around the world have become full fledged citizens of their inherited countries and contribute to the development and economy of their respective countries without cutting off their umbilical cords to their motherland. 449 pp. Bookseller Inventory # 73862

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Leela Gujadhur Sarup

Published by Aldrich International, Kolkata (2008)

ISBN 10: 8190337106 ISBN 13: 9788190337106

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Item Description: Aldrich International, Kolkata, 2008. Hardbound. Book Condition: As New. New. The National Congress Party in India started emerging with the closing of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century. Many Indians stalwarts started raising their heads and questioning the British Raj about matters pertaining to the welfare of the Indians in and out of India several petitions were submitted to the British Government to stop emigration of indentured labour. The ill treatment and exploitation of Indian workers in the colonies were highlighted. Not that the Indians in India were being treated as first class citizens. Had the British started sharing power with the Indians history might have taken a different turn. By elevating one Indian to peerage and appointing a few odd ones on a few committees the British did not do justice by denying capable Indians of administrative posts of importance. India continued to be pestered by famine. The end and beginning of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and in 1900 the population was the almost the same as the census of 1890 inspite of a ten year gap where under normal circumstances the population should have grown. Millions died during these periods Lord Curzon was the Viceroy of India from 1899 to 1904 with an extension of another five years to 1909. In the beginning of the twentieth century Curzon took a Begging Bowl around the world asking for help for the famine stricken people of India. Due to his policy of dividing Bengal in two parts Curzon faced joint angry Muslim Hindu riots and shifting the capital from Calcutta to Delhi in 1911 was a result of this unpopular outcome. However emigration continued in the 1900's under different conditions. Returned emigrants had saved enough money to take their families and friends back to the colonies as passengers. A few of these emigrants who worked as Sirdars on the plantations were sent back by their employees to recruit labourers who again were taken as passengers. The indentured system slowly came to an end. 490 pp. Bookseller Inventory # 73863

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Leela Gujadhur Sarup

Published by Aldrich International, Kolkata (2007)

ISBN 10: 8190337106 ISBN 13: 9788190337106

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Item Description: Aldrich International, Kolkata, 2007. Hardbound. Book Condition: As New. New. An in depth study of emigration was undertaken from 1882 that culminated in the massive Colonial Emigration Act XXI of 1883. Thereafter the next acts only to marginally amend the Act XXI of 1883 were passed in 1890 (one and half page) 1896 (half page) 189 398 pp. Bookseller Inventory # 76243

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Sarup Leela Gujadhur

Published by Aldrich International

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Item Description: Aldrich International. Book Condition: New. pp. ii + xviii + 433. Bookseller Inventory # 7602976

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Sarup Leela Gujadhur

Published by Aldrich International

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Item Description: Aldrich International. Book Condition: New. pp. xxvii + 416. Bookseller Inventory # 7602977

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Sarup Leela Gujadhur

Published by Aldrich International

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Item Description: Aldrich International. Book Condition: New. pp. xxxii + 376 , Maps. Bookseller Inventory # 7602980

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Sarup Leela Gujadhur

Published by Aldrich International

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Item Description: Aldrich International. Book Condition: New. , Illus. (Some Col.), Maps (Chiefly Col.). Bookseller Inventory # 7602893

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