Practical Guide to Surface Science and Spectroscopy

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9780121746100: Practical Guide to Surface Science and Spectroscopy

Practical Guide to Surface Science and Spectroscopy provides a practical introduction to surface science as well as describes the basic analytical techniques that researchers use to understand what occurs at the surfaces of materials and at their interfaces. These techniques include auger electron spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, inelastic scattering of electrons and ions, low energy electron diffraction, scanning probe microscopy, and interfacial segregation. Understanding the behavior of materials at their surfaces is essential for materials scientists and engineers as they design and fabricate microelectronics and semiconductor devices.


The book gives over 100 examples, discussion questions and problems with varying levels of difficulty. Included with this book is a CD-ROM, which not only contains the same information, but also provides many elements of animation and interaction that are not easily emulated on paper. In diverse subject matters ranging from the operation of ion pumps, computer-assisted data acquisition to tapping mode atomic force microscopy, the interactive component is especially helpful in conveying difficult concepts and retention of important information. The succinct style and organization of this practical guide is ideal for anyone who wants to get up to speed on a given topic in surface spectroscopy or phenomenon within a reasonable amount of time.

Key Features
* Both theory and practice are emphasized
* Logical organization allows one to get up to speed on any given topic quickly
* Numerous examples, questions for discussion and practice problems are included
* The CD includes animation and interactive elements that help to convey difficult concepts

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From the Back Cover:

Since a material interacts with the outside world through its surfaces, it is easy to appreciate the significance of surface science in today’s many scientific and engineering disciplines, such as catalysis, corrosion, thin-film growth, alloy design, micro/nano-electromechanical systems, tribology, semiconductor, and magnetic storage devices. Practical Guide to Surface Science and Spectroscopy provides a concise and accessible introduction to a wide range of surface science topics, including ultrahigh vacuum, commonly used surface analytical techniques, and various surface phenomena. For each topic, both theoretical and practical aspects are explored. The book gives over 100 examples, discussion questions and problems with varying levels of difficulty. Included with this book is a CD, which not only contains the same information, but also provides many elements of animation and interaction that are not easily emulated on paper. The interactive component is especially helpful in conveying difficult concepts and in aiding the retention of important information on such diverse topics as the operation of ion pumps, computer-assisted data acquisition to tapping mode atomic force microscopy. The succinct style and organization of this practical guide is ideal for anyone who wants to get up to speed on a given topic in surface spectroscopy or phenomenon within a reasonable amount of time.

Excerpt. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.:

Chapter 1

Fundamental Concepts in Ultrahigh Vacuum, Surface Preparation, and Electron Spectroscopy

1.1 Introduction

Surface science deals with the relationship between the composition and structure of surfaces and transition regions between phases on the one hand and their properties (electronic, chemical, mechanical, etc.) on the other. As technology evolves toward the use of large surface-to-volume ratio systems (catalysts, integrated circuits, etc.), knowledge of the surface structure and composition and an understanding of surface properties become more vital. In many cases, the topmost atoms of a solid surface form the first line of defense of a solid against external attack by chemical or mechanical forces. Therefore, passivation of the surface against corrosion or the elimination of surface sites where cracks can be initiated is of great practical importance. These processes require control of the surface composition and structure on the atomic scale. Quantitative determination of the composition and structure on the atomic scale is one of the major thrusts in surface studies. Let us look at a few examples.

Every new car in the United States has an emission control catalytic converter attached to the exhaust. It converts carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide and other harmful gases such as nitrogen oxides into nitrogen and oxygen. The catalyst consists of very fine noble alloy particles dispersed on some large-surface-area oxide support. Catalytic reactions responsible for such conversions occur on the surface of these particles. In the development of these catalytic materials, one needs to understand how the gas reactants get adsorbed on the surface, what their orientations are, and how they react to form intermediates and desorb to form the final products. This applies also to the synthesis of petroleum products and production of synthetic fuels.

As integrated circuit technology develops into the nanometer regime, one starts to deal with a significant fraction of atoms on surfaces or interfaces. These atoms have electronic properties markedly different from those of the bulk and have dramatic effects on the electrical properties of the overall device.

In the study of polycrystalline alloys and ceramic materials, the segregation of impurities or one component of the alloy to grain boundaries results in a drastic and often undesirable change in the mechanical properties of the alloy or ceramic material. Segregation often occurs within a few atomic layers. It is thus desirable to be able to measure and to control such segregation.

Aluminum-based intermetallics are lightweight high-strength alloys that have strong potentials for high-temperature applications. The major difficulty with this class of alloys is that most such polycrystalline intermetallics are brittle in room-temperature air. However, mechanical testing studies have shown that they are quite ductile under high vacuum-conditions. It is likely that the chemical interaction between the moisture in air and the intermetallic surface exposed during deformation is the primary cause for the brittleness of the intermetallic compound.

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