Exorcising the Ghost of Westphalia: Building World Order in the New Millennium

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9780130163028: Exorcising the Ghost of Westphalia: Building World Order in the New Millennium

The authors of this groundbreaking book take as a point of departure the precedent-setting agreements established by the Treaties of Westphalia to illuminate the options for maintaining peace. The book describes the system of world order established by the Peace of Westphalia and offers readers an evaluation of its relevance for the increasingly globalized world of the early twenty-fist century, as well as proposing an alternative system of global governance. Provides comprehensive coverage of the causes of great-powers war, the evolutionary course of the Thirty Years' War, durable peace settlements, the relevance of Thirty Years' War to today's environment, and offers an alternative model of world order. For individuals interested in international relations and global issues.

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About the Author:

Charles W. Kegley, Jr., (Ph.D., Syracuse University) is Pearce Professor of International Relations at the University of South Carolina. A past president of the International Studies Association (1993-1994), he has held appointments at Georgetown University, the University of Texas, and Rutgers University. With Eugene R. Wittkopf, his books include World Politics: Trend and Transformation, Eighth Edition, (2001) ; The Global Agenda: Issues and Perspectives, Sixth Edition (2001); American Foreign Policy: Pattern and Process, Fifth Edition (1996); and The Nuclear Reader: Strategy, Weapons, War, Second Edition (1989). He was also the editor, with Wittkopf, of the first editions of The Future of American Foreign Policy (1992) and The Domestic Source of American Foreign Policy (1988). Kegley also published The Long Postwar Peace: Contending Explanations and Projections (1991) and International Terrorism: Characteristics, Causes, and Controls (1990) as well as many articles in a wide range of scholarly journals.

Gregory A. Raymond (Ph.D., University of South Carolina) is director of the Honors College at Boise State University. Selected as the Idaho Professor of the Year (1994) by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, his books include The Other Western Europe: A Comparative Analysis of the Smaller Democracies, Second Edition (1983); Third World Policies of Industrialized Nations (1982); and Conflict Resolution and the Structure of the State System (1980). He has also published many articles on foreign policy and world politics in various scholarly journals. Raymond has spoken on international issues at numerous professional conferences throughout Europe, the United States, and Latin America.

Together Kegley and Raymond have previously coauthored From War to Peace (2002) , How Nations Make Peace (1999), A Multipolar Peace? Great-Power Politics in the Twenty First Century (1994); When Trust Breaks Down: Alliance Norms and World Politics (1990) ; and International Events and the Comparative Analysis of Foreign Policy (1975). They have also coauthored over two dozen articles in a diverse range of periodicals, including International Studies Quarterly, the Journal of Conflict Resolution, the Journal of Peace Research, International Interactions, and the Harvard International Review. Both Kegley and Raymond were Pew Faculty Fellows at the John F Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.

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Preface

The dawn of the twenty-first century has prompted scholars and policy makers alike to ask whether the new age will be more peaceful than its predecessor. Changing conditions always entice thoughtful people to reevaluate the conventional wisdom of their age. As the first years of the new millennium are etched into history, several competing visions of how to build a new world order are emerging from sober reflections on the turbulent twentieth century. Our book frames the debate over the ideals and institutions most capable of protecting humankind from the curse of armed conflict.

To illuminate the options for maintaining peace, we take as a point of departure the precedent-setting agreements established by the Peace of Westphalia that ended the Thirty Years' War in 1648. Considered the most important peace settlement of the last millennium, the treaties crafted at Munster and Osnabriick have charted the course of international politics for the next 350 years. They deserve close scrutiny because they serve as a model against which all subsequent peace settlements have been judged. As one scholar observes, "The Congresses of Munster and Osnabruck, which produced the Treaties of Westphalia, were the first of their kind. Europe had not previously witnessed a multilateral diplomatic gathering that was designed both to terminate a Pan-European War and to build some sort of order out of the chaos into which Europe had increasingly fallen since the late fifteenth century.

Readers familiar with our previous scholarly endeavors may be somewhat puzzled to discover that we have selected a single case—The Thirty Years' War and the Peace of Westphalia—as the springboard for analyzing alternative architectures for world order in the twenty-first century. Our careers' have been dedicated to the comparative study of foreign policy and of the relationship of transnational norms to international security, for the purpose of deriving insights and nomothetic generalizations about behavioral patterns in world history, using primarily quantitative methods to analyze cross-national and longitudinal aggregate data. Our prior collaborative books, International Events and the Comparative Analysis of Foreign Policy (1975), When Trust Breaks Down: Alliance Norms and World Politics (1990), A Multipolar Peace (1994), How Nations Make Peace (1999), and From War to Peace (2002) have drawn from either comparative case studies or, more commonly, from statistical analyses of macro-quantitative indicators. So why, now, do we concentrate on a single case from the distant past in order to think theoretically about the preconditions for international security in the future?

The answer stems from our conviction, buttressed by our experiences as Pew Faculty Fellows in International Relations at Harvard University, that a carefully selected single case study is a powerful educational tool, or heuristic, to generate propositions about the general properties of stable world orders, and without a doubt the case we select meets the criteria of salience, permanence, and impact that stimulates critical thinking about causal inferences and policy prescriptions to be drawn. Moreover, we are persuaded by the argument that the most useful pedagogy is to instruct by beginning with a treatment of a key historical period or event in order to tease out the theoretical insights and policy dilemmas that that case study offers, rather than beginning with theory and then applying it to practice. Introducing theory by first providing history permits an instructor to raise awareness about the important controversies embedded in the narrative so that they later can be systematically and rigorously examined by reference to the more formal models and theoretical traditions available in the scholarly study of international relations. Rather than "subjecting students to staid theoretical and disciplinary debates," our objective is to illuminate the value of historical interpretation for building theory inductively from a heuristic case that provokes questions about the linkages "between history and theory, and between theory and practice."

What makes the Thirty Years' War and the Peace of Westphalia so valuable for more intensive study is that the details surrounding the anarchy prevailing in the mid-seventeenth century bear an uncanny resemblance to today's international conditions when, as one recent headline in the International Herald Tribune proclaimed, "Globalization Sparks Another Anarchist Revival." Still other parallels between the code of diplomatic conduct in 1648 and today are evident. Consider, as an example, Robert Kaplan's prediction of The Coming Anarchy at the very time when a global culture is crystallizing and serious attention is being directed toward creating institutions for meaningful global governance. The Westphalian Peace stands out as critical, even today. As Fareed Zakaria, the editor of Foreign Affairs, summarizes, we need to pay careful attention to Westphalia because this settlement "ushered in the modern state system that governs the world—the very state system that is now, 350 years later, being undermined by transnational forces like the euro, the Internet and Amnesty International." Hence, we purposely have chosen to use a rather detailed account of the origins of that system-transforming peace settlement to base our conclusions about its effects in the future.

We posit that it is time to jettison many of the problematic tenets on which the Westphalian approach to international order has precariously rested and suggest how a new architecture might be built that combines the positive elements of the Westphalian legacy with new pillars to enhance global security in the twenty-first century. If our endeavors provoke scholars, students and policy makers to question old diplomatic formulas and to join us in thinking about new approaches for new realities, this book will have served its primary educational goal.

Many people have contributed to the development of this book, and their assistance is appreciated. We are especially indebted to the professional staff at the archives, libraries, and museums in Austria, Denmark, France, Italy, Germany, The Netherlands, Spain, and Sweden who helped sharpen our understanding of the Thirty Years' War and the Peace of Westphalia. In addition, we are grateful for the two referees who provided blind critical reviews of the first draft of our manuscript and whose constructive suggestions gave us confidence in the merits of this intellectual endeavor and helped us improve the presentation; we have learned since that Robert A. Denemark of the University of Delaware, Richard A. Falk of Princeton University, and John Vasquez of Vanderbilt University are the experts for whom we are indebted for their valuable advice. Moreover, special thanks must go to Tahir Cevik, Ruth Cooper, Gerhard Sagic, Holly Gastineau-Grimes, Min Ye, and Fehrettin Sumer for their assistance in the preparation of this manuscript.

Finally, Gregory Raymond would like to express his gratitude for the constant encouragement and cheerful support of his wife, Christine, and Charles Kegley wishes to thank Debbie, his soul-mate, for her loving support for this project.

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