General Chemistry: An Integrated Approach (3rd Edition)

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9780130334459: General Chemistry: An Integrated Approach (3rd Edition)

This text retains the relaxed, easy-to-read style of the previous edition to provide integrated coverage of organic and biochemistry, applications, and tools that foster problem-solving skills. More than any other, this text offers balance—in the topics presented, and in its presentation of the subject of chemistry. Using a wide variety of exercises, examples, and learning aids, this book provides a number of problem-solving techniques and explains how and when they should be used. For anyone who wants a relaxed, easy-to-read book that emphasizes major topics in chemistry as well as problem-solving techniques.

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About the Author:

John W. Hill received his B.S. in Chemistry and Mathematics from Middle Tennessee State University in 1957 and a Ph.D. in Organic Chemistry from the University of Arkansas in 1961. Following three years at Northeast Louisiana State College, he joined the faculty of the University of Wisconsin-River Falls in 1963. He served 13 years as Chair of the Department of Chemistry. In 1985 Pe was chosen Outstanding Faculty Member, Sciences and Mathematics. In 1989 he received the Robert C. Brasted Award for Outstanding College Teaching. A long-time member of the College Chemistry Consultants Service, he has served as a consultant at more than 40 colleges and universities. He is the author of several books, including Chemistry for Changing Times (with Doris K. Kolb) and Chemistry and Life: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry (with Stuart Baum and Rhonda Scott-Ennis). He has also written a children's mystery book, The Crimecracker Kids and the Bake Shop Break-in (with Marilyn D. Duerst).

Ralph Petrucci received his B.S. in Chemistry from Union College and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Following several years of teaching, research, consulting, and directing NSF Institutes for Secondary School Science Teachers at Case Western Reserve University, Professor Petrucci joined the planning staff of the new California State University campus at San Bernardino in 1964. There, in addition to his faculty appointment, he has served as Chairman of the Natural Sciences Division and Dean of Academic Planning. Professor Petrucci, now retired from teaching, is the author of several books, including General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, 8th edition, with William S. Harwood and F. Geoffrey Herring.

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Students come to a general chemistry course with a variety of backgrounds and interests. Most plan to become scientists, engineers, or professionals in medicine or other areas of the life sciences. Part of the task of the chemistry instructor is convincing students that knowledge of chemistry is essential to a true understanding of fields that range from cell biology to medicine to materials science. Indeed, the chemical properties and principles students learn in this course will pervade almost every aspect of their personal and professional lives. In this text, we have tried to provide students with core principles and interesting applications of chemistry. We believe that such knowledge will both help them in their professions and enrich their everyday lives. In addition to establishing the relevance of chemistry to broader concerns, a textbook can enhance students' success in the study of chemistry by satisfying other needs: the need for background material and a second voice for students to hear; help in visualizing chemical phenomena, both what students can see with their eyes and what they must learn to see with their minds' eyes; and help in formulating strategies for solving problems, the basis on which their knowledge will so often be tested. In crafting the third edition of this text, we have strived to strike a necessary balance in meeting these basic needs.

A Balanced Coverage of the Major Areas of General Chemistry

A major goal of ours in writing this text has been to provide a truly general course that integrates all the major areas of chemistry. Physical principles, inorganic compounds, and analytical techniques are addressed repeatedly. As in the previous editions, organic chemistry is appropriately incorporated throughout the text. Thus, some simple organic chemistry is introduced in Chapter 2 and used thereafter to describe physical properties of substances, aspects of chemical bonding, acid-base chemistry, and oxidation-reduction reactions. Biochemistry is introduced in Chapter 6 in a discussion of carbohydrates and fats as fuels for our bodies; it is used frequently in following chapters where appropriate. We have enhanced our treatment of analytical chemistry in this third edition, with details on types of titrations, descriptions of analytical tools, and new problems that are analytical specific, such as the Kjeldahl method for nitrogen, weight titrations, and limestone analysis.

As in the second edition, Chapter 23, titled "Chemistry and Life: More About Organic, Biological, and Medicinal Chemistry," brings together the core organic chemistry concepts introduced in earlier chapters, expands on them in those cases where the earlier introduction was necessarily brief, and then discusses the chemistry of selected biomolecules and medicinal compounds. In this way, we have tried to provide a useful set of core material to those who will never take 4xl organic chemistry course, while also offering a broader-than-usual preparation for students who will enroll in organic chemistry courses.

A Balanced Organization

The first 18 chapters of the text emphasize chemical principles, but the principles are illustrated throughout with significant applications and concrete examples from descriptive chemistry. Chapter 20 (The s-Block Elements), Chapter 21 (The p-Block Elements), and Chapter 22 (The d-Block Elements and Coordination Chemistry) provide a systematic treatment of descriptive chemistry, but with an emphasis on how the properties of substances relate to the principles learned earlier in the text. Chapter 19 (Nuclear Chemistry), Chapter 23 (Chemistry and Life), Chapter 24 (Chemistry of Materials), and Chapter 25 (Environmental Chemistry) are fairly independent, free standing chapters. These chapters can serve as capstones to a general chemistry course, for each revisits the basic principles of earlier chapters to cover topics in which students generally have a strong interest. These chapters can be studied, in whole or in part, in just about any order.

A Balanced Approach to Problem Solving

Problem-solving skills and the ability to think critically are essential for success in today's world. We provide ample opportunities for practicing these skills. For every type of problem we provide Examples that are carefully worked out, step-by-step, to guide students in solving similar problems.

Two problem-solving tools accompany the Examples. Problem-Solving Notes provide ready reference and help for students as they study specific Examples: The notes highlight relevant problem-solving techniques, help students understand and test the assumptions used to solve a worked Example, provide helpful hints, and encourage students to check their answers. Also, in the early chapters, particularly Chapter 3 (Stoichiometry), the various terms in a series of related calculations may be annotated. These annotations present a brief rationale for each calculation; we hope they will help students focus on "why" as well as "how:"

The Examples are followed by Exercises that students can use to practice their understanding of the methods illustrated. In most cases, two Exercises are given, labeled A and B. The goal in an A Exercise is to apply to a similar situation the method outlined in the Example. In a B Exercise, students often must combine that method with other ideas previously learned. Many of the B Exercises provide a context closer to that in which chemical knowledge is applied, and they thus serve as a bridge between the worked Examples and the more challenging problems at the end of the chapter.

The ability to plug numbers into an equation and get an answer, in itself, is seldom enough to attain mastery of a concept. For example, students should generally be able to judge whether an answer is reasonable, and in some cases, to obtain a reasonable estimate of an answer without doing a detailed calculation. To assist in the acquisition of these skills, we offer worked-out Estimation Examples followed by Estimation Exercises. Examples and Exercises of this type are found throughout the text.

Students also need to develop insights into chemical concepts that are often best demonstrated by an ability to solve problems of a qualitative nature. To emphasize this aspect of problem solving, we provide guided Conceptual Examples followed by Conceptual Exercises.

Through the different types of Examples and Exercises described, students of this text should gain a balanced set of skills in chemical problem solving. As additional reinforcement, the text offers four kinds of end-of-chapter exercises:

  • Review Questions are intended to provide a qualitative measure of student understanding of the main ideas introduced in the chapter. Answers to a few of the Review Questions are given in Appendix F (Answers to Selected Problems).
  • Problems are arranged by topic; they test mastery of the problem-solving techniques discussed in the chapter. The Problems are arranged in matched pairs, with answers to odd-numbered problems given in Appendix F.
  • Additional Problems are not grouped by type. Some are more challenging than the Problems, often requiring a synthesis of ideas from more than one chapter. Others pursue an idea further than is done in the text, or introduce new ideas. Answers to all of the odd-numbered Additional Problems are given in Appendix F.
  • A new category of exercises, Apply Your Knowledge, offers a small selection of applied, multiconceptual, and/or challenging problems designed for interested and well-prepared students. Answers to odd-numbered Apply Your Knowledge problems are given in Appendix F.
  • e-Media Problems specifically address interactive elements in the Companion Website, the electronic companion to this book. Typically, these problems can't be worked without reference to the Companion Website.

Some of the end-of-chapter Problems and Additional Problems are of an estimation or conceptual type, mirroring similar types of exercises within each chapter. We do not specifically label these questions as we do in the body of the chapter, however, because we want to give students experience in recognizing different types of problems as well as solving them.

A Balance of Print, Visual, and Media Presentation

Difficulty seeing the unseeable and imagining things in tree dimensions is cited among the top three barriers confronting students in a general chemistry course. (The other two are poor study habits and poor math skills, both of which are addressed by specific print and media supplements to this text; see following.) In this book, we use drawings, computer graphics, and photographs to help students visualize chemical phenomena at both the microscopic (molecular) and macroscopic (visible) levels. Users of this text also have available the media resources, which include hundreds of animations, simulations, exercises and molecular models that students can interactively explore on their computers.

This New Edition: Achieving Further Balance

We have revised the previous edition in specific ways in response to reviewer suggestions. We have:

  • rewritten explanations of a few difficult topics to be carefully paced and appropriate to the background of the typical student.
  • revised Chapter 17 to more clearly emphasize the molecular view of thermodynamics. Related concepts such as Raoult's law and colligative properties are rationalized using this molecular-thermodynamic approach.
  • enhanced the treatment of analytical chemistry.
  • updated the material throughout to reflect the latest science while retaining the relaxed, easy-to-read style of the second edition, including learning aids such as voice balloons in problem-solving strategies. We have continued the use of conceptual exercises that require the student to reflect on what has been learned. We have also r...

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