The second in a two-volume chronologically arranged compilation of primary and some secondary sources in Western Civilization. Organized around eight major themes to provide direction and cohesion to the book while allowing for originality of thought in both written and oral analysis. Readers are presented with basic questions regarding historical development, human nature, moral action and practical necessity while incorporating a wide variety of political, social, economic, religious, intellectual and scientific issues. The readings present history as a vehicle for better understanding in the present rather than a stagnant observation of past societies. The volume addresses the Age of Absolutism through the contemporary world including foundations of the modern world, the era of revolution and the age of anxiety. For those interested in an analysis of fundamental historical questions and concerns.
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Aspects of Western Civilization challenges students with basic questions regarding historical development, human nature, moral action, and practical necessity. This collection of diverse primary sources incorporates a wide variety of issues and is organized around eight major themes, including church/state relationships, beliefs and spirituality, imperialism, revolution, propaganda, women in history, and historical change.
Volume I: The Ancient World through the Age of Absolutism
Volume II: The Age of Absolutism through the Contemporary World
Both volumes feature:
This new edition offers expanded coverage of many topics, 'including the influence of women on political and social change, the early and middle Roman republic, the English Revolution and the politics of confrontation, the British empire in India and Africa, the process of decolonization after 1945, the contemporary development of Europe, and three new chapters: "Legend and History: The World of Early Greece," "Nationalism and Romanticism: 'The Spirit of the People,'" and "'Mark Them with Your Dead': The Scramble for Global Empire."Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.:
The Roman orator Cicero once remarked that "History is the witness of the times, the torch of truth, the life of memory, the teacher of life, the messenger of antiquity." In spite of these noble words, historians have often labored under the burden of justifying the study of events that are over and done. Human beings are practical, more concerned with their present and future than with their past. And yet the study of history provides us with unique opportunities for self-knowledge. It teaches us what we have done and therefore helps define what we are. On a less abstract level, the study of history enables us to judge present circumstance by drawing on the laboratory of the past. Those who have lived and died, through their recorded attitudes, actions, and ideas, have left a legacy of experience.
One of the best ways to travel through time and perceive the very "humanness" of history is through the study of primary sources. These are the documents, coins, letters, inscriptions, and monuments of past ages. The task of historians is to evaluate this evidence with a critical eye and then construct a narrative that is consistent with the "facts" as they have been established. Such interpretations are inherently subjective and open to dispute. History is thus filled with controversy as historians argue their way toward the truth. The only effective way to understand the past is through personal examination of the primary sources.
Yet, for the beginning student, this poses some difficulties. Such inquiry casts the student adrift from the security of accepting the "truth" as revealed in a textbook. In fact, history is too often presented in a deceptively objective manner; one learns facts and dates in an effort to obtain the right answers for multiple-choice tests. But the student who has wrestled with primary sources and has experienced voices from the past on a more intimate level accepts the responsibility of evaluation and judgment. He or she understands that history does not easily lend itself to right answers, but demands reflection on the problems that have confronted past societies and are at play even in our contemporary world.
Aspects of Western Civilization offers the student an opportunity to evaluate the primary sources of the past in a structured and organized format. The documents provided include state papers, secret dispatches, letters, diary accounts, poems, newspaper articles, papal encyclicals, propaganda' fliers, and even wall graffiti. Occasionally, the assessments of modern historians are included. Yet this two-volume book has been conceived as more than a simple compilation of sources. The subtitle of the work, Problems and Sources in History, gives true indication of the nature of its premise. Students learn from the past most effectively when faced with problems that have meaning for their own lives. In evaluating the material from Aspects of Western Civilization, the student will discover that issues are not nearly as simple as they may appear at first glance. Historical sources often contradict each other, and truth then depends upon logic and upon one's own experience and outlook on life. Throughout these volumes, the student is confronted with basic questions regarding historical development, human nature, moral action, and practical necessity. The text is therefore broad in its scope, incorporating a wide variety of political, social, economic, religious, intellectual, and scientific issues. It is internally organized around eight major themes that provide direction and cohesion while allowing for originality of thought in both written and oral analysis:
Structure of the Book
Each chapter begins with a time-line chronology so that students may visualize the historical parameters of the chapter. This is followed by a series of quotations from various historians, diplomats, philosophers, literary figures, or religious spokespersons who offer insight on the subject matter of the chapter. These quotations may well be used in conjunction with the study questions at the end of the unit. After the quotations, chapter themes are listed and framed by several questions that direct the reader to broader issues and comparative perspectives with ideas and events in other chapters. This feature acknowledges the changing perspectives of different eras while linking historical problems that emphasize the continuity of history. A general introduction then provides a brief historical background and focuses the themes or questions to be discussed in the chapter.
Following this general introduction, the primary sources are presented with extensive direction for the student. A headnote explains in more detail the historical or biographical background for each primary source and focuses attention on themes or interrelationships with other sources. Each source or section of sources concludes with a series of study questions that can form the basis of oral discussion or written analysis. The questions do not seek mere regurgitation of information, but demand a more thoughtful response based on reflective analysis of the primary sources.
Use of the Book
Aspects of Western Civilization offers the instructor a wide variety of didactic applications. The chapters fit into a more or less standard lecture format and are ordered chronologically. An entire chapter may be assigned for oral discussion, or sections from each chapter may satisfy particular interests or requirements. Some of the chapters provide extensive treatment of a broad historical topic ("The Sword of Faith: The Medieval Synthesis of Western Civilization"), "`I Am the State!': The Development of Absolutism in England and France"; "The Enlightenment and the Revolution of the Mind"; "`Liberty, Equality, Fraternity!': The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Era"). In order to make them manageable and effective, I have grouped them into topical sections that can be utilized separately, if so desired.
The chapters may also be assigned for written analysis. One of the most important concerns of both instructor and student in an introductory class is the written assignment. Aspects of Western Civilization has been designed to provide self-contained topics that are problem-oriented, promote reflection and analysis, and encourage responsible cit...
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