Psychology (7th Edition)

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9780130982636: Psychology (7th Edition)

In addition to presenting a comprehensive and truly engaging overview of the diverse field of psychology, Wade and Tavris' Psychology, Seventh Edition goes further. Through careful and systematic presentation, modeling, and reinforcement of good scientific and critical thinking, Wade and Tavris' aim is to assess and clarify matters of direct relevance to human health, well-being, and happiness. Chapter topics deal with an introduction to psychology, biology and behavior, the environment and behavior, thinking and feeling, the developing person, and health and disorder. MARKET For individuals interested in the human psychology.

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About the Author:

Carole Wade earned her Ph.D. in cognitive psychology at Stanford University. She began her academic career at the University of New Mexico, where she taught courses in psycholinguistics and developed the first course at the university on the psychology of gender. She was professor of psychology for ten years at San Diego Mesa College, then taught at College of Marin, and is now affiliated with Dominican University of California. She is coauthor, with Carol Tavris, of Invitation to Psychology, Psychology in Perspective, and The Longest War: Sex differences in perspective. Dr. Wade has a long-standing interest in making psychology accessible to students and the general public. For many years she has focused her efforts on the teaching and promotion of critical-thinking skills, diversity issues, and the enhancement of undergraduate education in psychology. She chaired the APA Board of Educational Affairs's Task Force on Diversity Issues at the Precollege and Undergraduate Levels of Education in Psychology, as well as the APNs Public Information Committee; has been a G. Stanley Hall lecturer at the APA convention; and served on the steering committee for the National Institute on the Teaching of Psychology. Dr. Wade is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and a charter member of the American Psychological Society. When she isn't busy with her professional activities, she can be found riding the trails of northern California on her Arabian horse, Conde, or his stablemate, Dancer.

Carol Tavris earned her Ph.D. in the interdisciplinary program in social psychology at the University of Michigan, and as a writer and lecturer she has sought to educate the public about the importance of critical and scientific thinking in psychology. She is author of The Mismeasure of Woman; Anger: The misunderstood emotion; and, with Carole Wade, Invitation to Psychology, Psychology in Perspective, and The Longest War: Sex differences in perspective. She has written on psychological topics for a wide variety of magazines, journals, edited books, and newspapers. Many of her book reviews and opinion essays for The Los Angeles Times, The New York Times Book Review, Scientific American, and other publications have been collected in Psychobabble and Biobunk: Using psychology to think critically about issues in the news. Dr. Tavris lectures widely on, among other topics, pseudoscience in psychology and psychiatry, anger, and the science and politics of research on gender. She has taught in the psychology department at UCLA and at the Human Relations Center of the New School for Social Research in New York. She is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and a charter Fellow of the American Psychological Society; a member of the board of the Council for Scientific Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry; and a member of the editorial board of the APS journal Psychological Science in the Public Interest. When she is not writing or lecturing, she can be found walking the trails of the Hollywood Hills with her border collie, Sophie.

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To the Instructor

When we began work on the first edition of this textbook in the mid-1980s, we had five goals, some of which then were considered quite daring: (1) to make critical thinking integral to the introductory psychology course; (2) to represent psychology as the study of all human beings by mainstreaming research on culture and gender; (3) to keep ahead of the curve in coverage of new research and directions in the field; (4) to acknowledge forthrightly the many controversies in psychology; and (5) to foster active learning, so that students would become involved with the material and see how it applies to their personal and social lives.

Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

Our first ambition, unique to textbooks at the time, was to get students to reflect on what they were learning—to show them what it is like to think like a psychologist. Psychology is not just a body of knowledge; it is also away of approaching and analyzing the world. From the beginning, therefore, our approach has been based on critical thinking, the understanding that knowledge is advanced when people resist leaping to conclusions on the basis of personal experience alone (so tempting in psychological matters), when they apply rigorous standards of evidence, and when they listen to competing views. Because many students equate the word "critical" with "negative," we later added an emphasis on the creative, forward-moving aspects of critical thinking—the importance of generating alternative explanations of events, asking questions, and using one's imagination:

In a textbook, true critical thinking cannot be reduced to a set of rhetorical questions or to a formula for analyzing studies; it is a process that must be woven seamlessly into the narrative. The primary way we "do" critical and creative thinking, therefore, is by modeling it in our evaluations of research and popular ideas. In this book, we encourage critical thinking about concepts that many students approach uncritically, such as astrology, "premenstrual syndrome," and the "instinctive" nature of sexuality. And we also apply it to some ideas that many psychologists have accepted unquestioningly, such as the decisive importance of childhood to later life, Maslow's motivational hierarchy, and the disease model of addiction. By probing beneath assumptions and presenting the most recent evidence, we hope to convey the excitement and open-ended nature of psychological research and inquiry.

The first chapter starts with an extended discussion of what critical thinking is and what it isn't, and why critical thought is particularly relevant to the study of psychology. Here we introduce eight guidelines to critical thinking, which we draw on throughout the text as we evaluate research and popular ideas. (These guidelines are also listed and described briefly on the inside front cover of the book.)

Many, though by no means all, of our critical-thinking discussions are signaled by the lightbulb symbol shown in the margin, along with "signposts" containing provocative questions. We have explicitly identified the relevant guidelines in each signpost so that students can see more easily how the guidelines are actually applied. The questions in the signposts are not, in themselves, illustrations o f critical thinking; rather, they serve as pointers to critical analyses in the text and invite the reader into the discussion.

Mainstreaming Culture, Gender, and Biology

Of course, all introductory textbooks are divided into chapters that cover particular topics or subfields, such as the brain, emotion, developmental psychology, and social psychology. Increasingly, however, some areas of investigation can no longer be squeezed into a single chapter, because they are relevant to topics throughout the course. This is especially true of findings from the "bookends" of human behavior—culture and biology—as well as research on gender.

At the time of our first edition, some considered our goal of incorporating research on gender and culture into introductory psychology to be quite radical—either a sop to political correctness or a fluffy and superficial fad. Today, the issue is no longer whether to include these topics, but how best to do it. From the beginning, our own answer has been to include studies of gender and culture in the main body of the text, wherever they are relevant to the larger discussion, rather than relegating these studies to an intellectual ghetto of separate chapters or boxed features.

Gender. We cover many kinds of gender differences in this book—differences in pain perception, sexual attitudes and motives, body satisfaction, depression, antisocial personality disorder, children's play preferences, and ways of expressing love, intimacy, and emotion, to mention just a few. (You will find many other gender-related topics in the index.) We do not equate "gender" with "women," either! We have been particularly attentive to research on the psychology of men, for example in discussing the underdiagnosis of male depression and the rise of eating disorders and distorted body images in young men. In many cases, we have tried to go beyond mere description of differences, by examining competing explanations for them: biological influences, evolutionary influences, social roles, gender socialization, gender schemas, and the power of current situations and experiences to shape people's choices and lives.

Nor do we focus exclusively on gender differences. Many differences, though reliable, are trivial in terms of real-life importance. And gender similarities, though they are often overlooked, are every bit as important and interesting as the eternal search for differences. We therefore include findings on similarities, too—for example, that men and women do not, overall, differ in moral reasoning (Chapter 14), obedience to authority (Chapter 8), or mood swings in the course of an average month (Chapter 5).

Culture. In recent years—and certainly in the aftermath of 9/11—most psychologists have come to appreciate the profound influence of culture on all aspects of life, from nonverbal behavior to the deepest attitudes towards how the world should be. Thus we report empirical findings about culture and ethnicity throughout the book—for example, in our discussions of addiction, anxiety symptoms, differing cultural norms (e.g., for cleanliness, risk, and conversational distance), emotional expression, group differences in IQ scores and academic achievement, motivational conflicts, personality, psychotherapy, rules about time, attitudes toward weight and the ideal body, and the effectiveness of medication. (Again, we refer you to the index for a complete listing of topics.) In addition, Chapter 8 highlights the sociocultural perspective in psychology and includes extended discussions of ethnocentrism, prejudice, and cross-cultural relations. However, the scientific study of cultural diversity is not synonymous with the popular movement called multiculturalism. The study of culture, in our view, should increase students' understanding of what culture means, how and why ethnic and national groups differ, and why no group is inherently better than another. Thus we try to apply critical thinking to our own coverage of culture, avoiding the twin temptations of ethnocentrism and stereotyping.

Biology. Anyone who is awake and conscious knows that we are in the midst of a biomedical revolution that is transforming science and psychology. Findings from the Human Genome Project, studies of behavioral genetics, astonishing discoveries about the brain, the development of technologies such as PET scans and fMRIs, the proliferation of medications for psychological disorders—all have had a profound influence on our understanding of human behavior and on interventions to help people with chronic problems. This work, too, can no longer be confined to a single chapter; accordingly, we report new findings from the biological front wherever they are relevant: for example, in our discussions of neurogenesis in the brain, memory, emotion, stress, child development, aging, mental illness, personality, and many other topics (again, we refer you to the index for a full list). But just as we do with culture and gender, we apply principles of critical thinking to this domain of research, too. Thus we caution students about the dangers of reducing complex behaviors solely to biology, overgeneralizing from limited data, failing to consider other explanations, and oversimplifying solutions (e.g., as promises of "miracle" drugs often do).

Facing the Controversies

Psychology has always been full of lively, sometimes angry, debates, and we feel that students should not be sheltered from them. They are what make psychology so interesting! Sociobiologists and feminist psychologists often differ strongly in their analyses of gender relations (Chapters 3 and 12). Psychodynamic clinicians and experimental psychologists differ strongly in their assumptions about memory, child development, and trauma; these differences have heated repercussions for, among other things, "recovered memory" therapy and the questioning of children as eyewitnesses (Chapter 10). The "scientist-practitioner gap" between researchers and psychodynamic psychotherapists is continuing to widen (Chapter 17). Developmental psychologists are hotly debating the extent and limits of parental influence on children (Chapters 13 and 14). And psychologists continue to argue among themselves about the genetic and cultural origins of addiction, in a debate that has profound importance for the treatment of drag abuse (Chapters S and 16). In this book we candidly address these and other controversies, try to show why they are occurring, and suggest the kinds of questions that might lead to useful resolutions.

Applications and Active Learning: Getting Involved

Throughout this book, we have kept in mind one of the soundest findings about learning: that it requires the active encoding of material. You can't just sit there and expect it to happen. S2veral pedagogical features in particular encourage students to become actively involved in what they are reading.

What's Ahead consists of a brief set of questions introducing each major section within a chapter. These questions are not merely rhetorical; they are intended to be provocative and intriguing enough to arouse students' curiosity about the material to follow: Why are people all over the world getting fatter? What part of the anatomy do psychologists think is the "sexiest sex organ"? How are your beliefs about love affected by your income? What is the difference between ordinary techniques of persuasion and the coercive techniques used by cults? What is the "Big Lie"?

Looking Back, at the end of each chapter, lists all of the What's Ahead questions along with page numbers to show where the material for each question was covered. Students can check their retention and can easily review if they have trouble answering a question. This feature has another purpose as well: It gives students a sense of how much they are learning about matters of personal and social importance, and helps them appreciate that psychology offers more than "common sense." Some instructors may want to turn some of the Looking Back questions into essay or short-answer test items or written assignments.

Get Involved exercises in each chapter make active learning entertaining. Some consist of quick demonstrations (e.g., clasping your hands together to find out if you are genetically a "right thumb over left" person or the reverse). Some are simple mini-studies (e.g., observing seating patterns in the school cafeteria). Some help students relate course material to their own lives (e.g., if they drink, listing their own motives for doing so). Instructors may want to assign some of these exercises to the entire class and then discuss the results and what they might mean.

Conceptual graphics help students visualize material in order to understand and retain it better. Students can see at a glance, for example, the various types of attachment, distinctions between different types of memories, the difference between positive and negative reinforcement, the elements of successful therapy, and how a self-fulfilling prophecy is created. We have tried to keep these visual summaries simple, straightforward, and appealing.

Review tables summarize and contrast theories and approaches discussed in the text—for example, methods used in brain research, theories of dreaming, theories of personality, and the factors that lead to health or illness. The Reviews help students extract main points, organize what they have learned, and study for exams.

Quick Quizzes are periodic self-tests that encourage students to check their progress, and to go back and review if necessary. These quizzes do more than just test for memorization of definitions; they tell students whether they comprehend the issues. Mindful of the common tendency to skip quizzes or to peek at the answers, we have used various formats and have included engaging examples in order to motivate students to test themselves.

Many of the quizzes also include critical-thinking items, identified by the critical-thinking symbol. These items invite the student to reflect on the implications of findings and to consider how psychological principles might illuminate real-life issues. For example: What kinds of questions should a critical thinker ask about a new drug for depression? How might a hypothetical study of testosterone and hostility be improved? How should a critical consumer evaluate someone's claim that health is entirely a matter of "mind over matter"? Although we offer some answers to these questions, students may have valid, well-reasoned answers that differ from our own.

Other pedagogical features designed to help students study and learn better include a running glossary that defines boldfaced technical terms on the pages where they occur; a cumulative glossary at the back of the book; a list of key terms at the end of each chapter that includes page numbers so students can find the sections where the terms are first mentioned; chapter outlines; and chapter summaries in paragraph form to help students review.

Taking Psychology with You, a feature that concludes each chapter, illustrates the practical implications of psychological research for individuals, groups, institutions, and society. This feature tackles topics of personal interest and relevance to many students, such as managing pain (Chapter 6), getting along with people from other cultures (Chapter 8), managing anger (Chapter 11), rearing children (Chapter 14), and assessing self-help books (Chapter 17).

The final "Taking Psychology with You" feature in the book is an Epilogue, a unique effort to show students that the vast number of seemingly disparate studies and points of view they have just read about are related. The Epilogue deals with a typical problem that everyone can be expected to encounter: conflicts in a close relationship. We show how topics discussed in previous chapters can be applied to understanding and coping with such conflicts. The Epilogue can be a useful tool for helping students integrate the diverse approaches of contemporary psychology. Asking students to come up with research findin...

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