Children and Their Development with Observations CD ROM, Third Edition

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9780131829763: Children and Their Development with Observations CD ROM, Third Edition

Illustrating both the splendor of child development and the strides that researchers have made in understanding developmental psychology, this volume presents the core research, theory and application of this field in a clear and engaging style. Written by a noted researcher in cognitive development using a modular format, readers are encouraged to focus on the main concepts through the use of real case studies, outlines, objectives, study questions, special features and other pedagogical devices. Kail's approach ensures that readers understand the key issues developmental psychologists study today without overwhelming them with details. Readers benefit from a book that is both research-oriented and accessible. This overview of child development examines the science of child development, research in child development, genetic bases of child development, prenatal development, birth, and the newborn, growth and health, sensory and perceptual development, Piaget's theory of cognitive development, information-processing approaches to cognitive development, intelligence and individual differences in cognition, language and communication, emotional development, understanding self and others, moral understanding and behavior, gender and development, as well as family relationships and influences beyond the family. For those involved with child development.

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About the Author:

Robert V. Kail is Professor of Psychological Sciences at Purdue University. His undergraduate degree is from Ohio Wesleyan University, and he received his Ph. D. from the University of Michigan. Kail is currently Editor of the Journal of Experimental Child Psychology and of Advances in Child Development and Behavior. He received the McCandless Young Scientist Award from the American Psychological Association, was named the Distinguished Sesquicentennial Alumnus in Psychology by Ohio Wesleyan University, and is a fellow in the American Psychological Society. His research interests are in the area of cognitive development and focus on the causes and consequences of developmental change in the speed of information processing. Away from the office, he enjoys working out and watching his children grow.

Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.:

Like many professors turned textbook authors, I began this book because none of the texts available met the aims of the child-development classes that I taught at Purdue. What were those aims? I wanted a book that would:

  • provide a solid, research oriented overview of child-development science but would also use effective pedagogy to enhance students' learning;
  • use fundamental developmental issues as a foundation for integrating the many discoveries that make child-development science a dynamic and exciting field;
  • explain the many different methods used by researchers, then illustrate them repeatedly to drive home the lesson that science progresses when complementary methods converge; and
  • demonstrate that the results of child-development research can be used to enhance the lives of children and their families.

Children and Their Development, first published in 1998, is my effort to meet these goals. In the next few pages, I want to explain how the book works to achieve the goals I just described.

Goal 1: Use effective pedagogy to promote students' learning. The focus on a student-friendly book begins with the structure of the chapters, which is designed to promote students' learning. Each chapter consists of three or four modules that provide a clear and well-defined organization to the chapter. Each module begins with a set of learning objectives and a vignette that introduces the topic to be covered. Within each module, all figures, tables, and photos are fully integrated with the exposition, eliminating the need for students to search for a graphic. Similarly, special topics that are set off in other textbooks as feature boxes are, by contrast, fully integrated with the main text and identified by a distinctive icon. Each module ends with several questions intended to help students check their understanding of the major ideas in the module.

The end of each chapter includes several additional study aids. "Unifying Themes" links the ideas in the chapter to a major developmental theme (more about this in a minute . ... ). "See for Yourself" suggests activities that allow students to observe topics in child development firsthand. "Resources" includes books and Web sites where students can learn more about child development. "Key Terms" is a list of all of the important boldface terms appearing in the chapter. The "summary" is organized by module and the primary headings within each module; it reviews the entire chapter.

These different pedagogical elements do work; students using previous editions frequently comment that the book is easy to read and presents complex topics in an understandable way.

Goal 2: Use fundamental developmental issues as a foundation for students' learning of research and theory in child development. The child-development course sometimes overwhelms students because of the sheer number of topics and studies that don't "hang together"—students see only the trees and never the forest. Of course, today's child-development science is really propelled by a concern with a handful of fundamental developmental issues, such as the continuity of development and the roles of nature and nurture in development. In Children and Their Development, four of these foundational issues are introduced in Chapter 1, then reappear in subsequent chapters to scaffold students' understanding. The "Check Your Learning" questions at the end of each module include one thought question that is aligned with one of the four issues. Then, as I mentioned already, the end of the chapter includes "Unifying Themes" in which the ideas from the chapter are used to illustrate one of the foundational themes. By occurring repeatedly throughout the text, the themes remind students that all child-development science ultimately addresses a set of core issues.

Goal 3: Teach students that child-development science draws on many complementary research methods, each of which contributes uniquely to scientific progress. In Module 2.1, I portray child development research as a dynamic process in which scientists make a series of decisions as they plan their work. In the process, they create a study that has both strengths and weaknesses. Each of the remaining chapters of the book contains a "Focus on Research" feature that illustrates this process by showing—in an easy-to-read question-and-answer format—the different decisions that investigators made in designing a particular study. I trace each of the steps and explain the decisions that were made. Then the results are shown, usually with an annotated figure, so that students can learn how to interpret graphs. The investigators' conclusions are described, and I then end each "Focus on Research" by mentioning the kind of converging evidence that would strengthen the author's conclusions. Thus, the research methods introduced in Chapter 2 reappear in every chapter, depicting research as a collaborative enterprise that depends on the contributions of many scientists using different methods.

Goal 4: Show students how the findings from child-development research can improve children's lives. Child-development scientists and students alike want to know how the findings of research can be use to promote children's development. In Chapter 2 of Children and Their Development, I describe the different means by which researchers can use their work to improve children's lives. In the chapters that follow, these ideas come alive in two special features. "Improving Children's Lives" provides research-based solutions to common problems in children's lives. "Child Development and Family Policy" demonstrates how research has inspired change in social policies that affect children and families. From these features, students see that child-development research really matters—parents, teachers, and policy-makers can use research to foster children's development.

New to the Third Edition

The third edition of Children and Their Development has several improvements designed to make the book more useful to students and instructors.

  • Expanded Coverage of Research Methods and Application of Findings. In previous editions, theory and research were both covered in Chapter 1. In the third edition, theories and themes are included in Chapter 1 while additional information on research methods and the application of research findings to family policy is presented in Chapter 2. The new "converging evidence" paragraph in the "Focus on Research" sections in each chapter illustrates and reinforces my emphasis on this dynamic process.
  • New Pedagogical Features. In most chapters, one or more new "Summary Tables" provides a capsule review of a topic (e.g., different theoretical perspectives; different influences on child maltreatment). In addition, key terms now appear in color at first mention in the text to promote students' recognition and recall.
  • More Explicit Integration of Developmental Themes. One of the four child development research themes introduced in Chapter 1 is emphasized at the end of every module in a theme-based reflective question. In addition, one theme per chapter is exemplified in the end-of-chapter "Unifying Themes."
  • Enhanced Illustration Program. More than 3 of the photos in this edition are new. In addition, a number of new figures have been added, updated, or otherwise revised.
  • Updated Research Coverage. In updating the coverage of research, I have added hundreds of new citations to research published since 2000.
  • Substantive Content Additions. I have also added significant new content to every chapter. Of particular note:
    • Chapter 1 has additional information on the history of child-development research and now describes evolutionary developmental psychology.
    • Chapter 2 describes important new research tools (e.g., microgenetic studies, longitudinal-sequential designs, and meta-analysis) and includes a brand-new module on child development and family policy.
    • Chapter 3 provides information on the history of screening infants for PKU and has a new "Focus on Research" feature on behavioral genetics.
    • Chapter 4 has expanded coverage on risks to older mothers, principles of teratogenic action, "crack babies," and adjustments to parenthood.
    • Chapter 5 now covers nutritional needs of older children, dealing with eaters, keys for healthy bone growth in adolescents, and the impact of disease and accidents on development.
    • Chapter 6 includes new material on sensory integration, object perception, ADHD (including the MTA study), and physical fitness.
    • Chapter 7 has a completely rewritten description of sensory-motor development (one that emphasizes the major accomplishments instead of the six stages), more on the historical contributions of Piaget's work, and expanded coverage of "theory theory."
    • Chapter 8 now describes Siegler's overlapping waves model, executive functioning, and metacognition (including cognitive self-regulation).
    • Chapter 9 contains new material on emotional intelligence and on historical change in IQ scores.
    • Chapter 10 has information on language development in children with cochlear implants as well as information on the social-interactionist perspective on the acquisition of grammar.
    • Chapter 11 now begins with a description of the functional approach to emotion, includes expanded coverage of emotional regulation and father-infant relationships, and contains a reorganized presentation of the domains of temperament.
    • Chapter 12 has information on teens' increased risk for depression and contains expanded coverage of the early stage of self-awareness and of prejudice.
    • Chapter 13 describes Turiel's work on domains of social judgment and has expanded coverage of victims of aggression.
    • ...

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