Fundamentals of Analog Circuits

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9780138369330: Fundamentals of Analog Circuits
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A textbook introducing discrete linear devices and circuits and describing operational amplifiers and other linear integrated circuits. One feature is that the circuit diagrams indicate current with a polarized meter symbol rather than arrows, both to reflect the readings from an ammeter and to specify the relative current magnitude. Radio-frequency amplifiers and transducers are also considered. Solutions to some of the end-of-section exercises are provided at the end of each chapter. The glossary does not indicate pronunciation. No bibliography. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.

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Fundamentals of Analog Circuits offers comprehensive coverage of a wide, relevant array of topics. It integrates theory, practical circuits, and troubleshooting concepts, keeping mathematical details to a minimum. Delving more deeply into coverage of linear integrated circuits than discrete device circuits, the text guides readers through a system of pedagogical tools that both reinforces and challenges their understanding.

Excerpt. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.:

Fundamentals of Analog Circuits, Second Edition, presents an introduction to discrete linear devices and circuits followed by a thorough coverage of operational amplifiers and other linear integrated circuits. Also, this textbook provides extensive troubleshooting and applications coverage. Applications are shown with a realistic printed circuit board format in the last section of each chapter. They include a Troubleshooter's Bench exercise that presents a troubleshooting problem with the system. In addition to the Troubleshooter's Bench, troubleshooting sections are found in many parts of the text.

This second edition updates and improves coverage of the various operational amplifiers and other analog circuits introduced in the first edition. Each device was reviewed; older devices were replaced with newer ones, and a reference to the manufacturer's Internet site has been added to expedite finding additional information. In some cases, the explanation was streamlined or improved. For example, a brief discussion of triggering SCRs and triacs by microcontrollers was added in Chapter 15.

Two new features of this text include identifying key terms and adding a Troubleshooter's Quiz. Key terms are presented in the chapter opener and highlighted in color in the text with a margin icon. The Troubleshooter's Quiz reinforces critical thinking and troubleshooting skills for circuits introduced in the chapter. The Troubleshooter's Quiz' consists of 8 to 12 multiple-choice questions that require students to consider how a given fault will affect voltage, current, gain, and so forth (increase, decrease, no change). Answers to the Troubleshooter's Quiz are found at the end of each chapter.

In addition, circuits have been prepared for many of the examples using Electronics Workbench™/Multisim to enable changes or troubles to be investigated. Electronics Workbench/Multisim is a computer-simulation program that is useful for testing circuits and observing the effect of parameter changes or troubles with the circuit. It uses a graphical interface to place components on a "workbench" and simulated instruments to view the results. These circuits are available on CD-ROM (ISBN: 0-13-060944-7).

Current in Fundamentals of Analog Circuits, Second Edition, is indicated by a meter notation rather than by directional arrows. This unique approach accomplishes two things. First, it eliminates the need to distinguish between conventional flow and electron flow because it indicates current direction by polarity signs, just as an actual ammeter does. Users can interpret current direction based on the meter polarity in accordance with their particular preference. Second, in addition to current direction, the meter notation provides relative magnitudes of the currents in a given circuit by observing the number of bars.


The first five chapters provide a fundamental coverage of basic concepts, diodes, transistors, and amplifiers. The last ten chapters focus on integrated circuit op-amps, active filters, oscillators, power supplies, special amplifiers, communications circuits, data conversion circuits, and measurement and control circuits.

Discrete Devices and Circuits. The first part of the text consists of five chapters as follows: Chapter 1 presents an introduction to analog electronics, analog signals, amplifiers, and troubleshooting. Chapter 2 covers diodes, rectifiers, and regulators. Chapter 3 introduces bipolar junction transistors and BJT amplifiers. Chapter 4 gives a basic treatment of field-effect transistors and FET amplifiers. Chapter 5 deals with multistage amplifiers, radio-frequency (RF) amplifiers, and power amplifiers.

Analog Integrated Circuits. The second part of the text consists of ten chapters that cover analog integrated circuits as follows: Chapter 6 provides an introduction to) operational amplifiers. Op-amp frequency response is covered in Chapter 7, and basic op-amp circuits (comparators, summing amplifiers, integrators, and differentiators) is the: topic of Chapter 8. Active op-amp filters are covered in Chapter 9, and oscillators ands timers are introduced in Chapter 10. Power supplies are covered in Chapter 11. Special amplifiers (instrumentation amplifiers, isolation amplifiers, operational transconductance; amplifiers (OTAs), and log/antilog amplifiers) are introduced in Chapter 12. Communication circuits (AM and FM receivers, , linear multipliers, mixers, and phase-locked loops) are studied in Chapter 13. Data conversion circuits such as analog switches, sample-and-hold circuits, digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters, and voltage-to-frequency and frequency-to-voltage converters are among the topics in Chapter 14. Finally, Chapter 15 covers various types of transducers and associated measurement circuits.


Fundamentals of Analog Circuits, Second Edition, is innovative in four areas:

  • Current in a circuit is indicated by a polarized meter symbol that allows the user to apply the direction of preference. Also, current meters show relative current magnitude ins a circuit.
  • Emphasis is on analog integrated circuits, but also there is a good coverage of discrete circuits.
  • Topics that are generally not found in competing textbooks, such as RF amplifiers and transducers, are covered.
  • System applications with Troubleshooter's Bench exercises incorporate realistic printed circuit boards, and a related full-color insert section is included.

Other features are as follows:

  • Extensive troubleshooting material, including new Troubleshooter's Quiz
  • Extensive use of examples
  • Practice exercise in each numbered example
  • Standard component values
  • Two-page chapter openers with introduction, section list, objectives, key terms, and system application preview
  • Section openers with overview and objectives
  • End-of-section review questions
  • Glossary terms boldfaced in text
  • Answers to practice exercises for examples, section review questions, self-test, and Troubleshooter's Quiz at end of chapter
  • Minimal mathematics, with important equations numbered
  • A summary, key formula list, glossary, multiple-choice self-test, Troubleshooter's Quiz, and section problems for each chapter
  • Key terms in color and with a margin icon in each chapter
  • End-of-book derivations, manufacturers' specifications sheets, and answers to odd-numbered problems
  • References to manufacturers' home pages for integrated circuits
  • Comprehensive end-of-book glossary that ,includes all the terms from the end-of-chapter glossaries
  • Lab Exercises manual written by David Buchla
  • Instructor's Resource Manual that includes transparency masters, System Application worksheets, and test item file
  • Visit the companion website to this text at .

Chapter Pedagogy

Chapter Opener. Each chapter begins with a two-page spread.

Section Opener and Section Review Questions. Each section within a chapter begins with an opening introduction and list of section objectives. Each section ends with a set of review questions that focus on key concepts. Answers to review questions are given at the end of the chapter.

Key Terms. Certain terms are in color and are identified by a margin icon. These key terms, as well other bold terms, are defined in the end-of-chapter glossary and in the end-of-book glossary.

Examples and Practice Exercises. Worked-out examples are used to illustrate and clarify topics covered in the text. At the end of every example and within the example box is a practice exercise that either reinforces the example or focuses on a related topic. Answers to the practice exercises are given at the end of the chapter.

System Application. The last section of each chapter (except Chapter 1) is a system application of devices and circuits related to the chapter coverage. The Troubleshooter's Bench sections provide a series of activities with a practical slant to simulate "on-the-job" situations. These activities include relating a schematic to a realistic printed circuit board, making measurements, troubleshooting, and writing reports. Three selected system applications are related to the full-color insert as indicated by a special logo. Results are provided in the Instructor's Resource Manual.

The system application is an optional feature which if omitted will not affect the coverage of any other topics. The variety of "systems" is intended to give students an appreciation for the wide range of applications for electronic devices and to provide motivation to learn the basic concepts of each chapter. The system application sections can be used as:

  • A part of each chapter for the purpose of relating devices to a realistic application and for establishing a useful purpose for devices covered. All or selected activities can be assigned and discussed in class or turned in for a grade.
  • A separate out-of-class assignment to be turned in for extra credit.
  • An in-class activity to promote and stimulate discussion and interaction among students and between students and instructor.
  • An illustration to help answer the question that many students have: "Why do I need to know this?"

Chapter End Matter. A summary, key formula list, glossary, self-test, Troubleshooter's Quiz, and sectionalized problem sets are found at the end of each chapter. The answers to practice exercises for examples, section review questions, self-test, and Troubleshooter's Quiz are also provided.

To the Student

Any career training requires hard work, and electronics is no exception. The best way to learn new material is by reading, thinking, and doing. This text is designed to help you along the way by providing an overview and objectives for each section, numerous worked-out examples, practice exercises, and review questions with answers.

Don't expect every concept to be crystal clear after a single reading. Read each section of the text carefully and think about what you have read. Work through the example problems step-by-step before trying the practice exercise that goes with the example. Sometimes more than one reading of a section will be necessary. After each section, check your understanding by answering the section review questions.

Review the chapter summary, glossary, and formula list. Take the multiple-choice self-test. Finally, work the problems at the end of the chapter. Check your answers to the self-test and the odd-numbered problems against those provided. Working problems is the most important way to check your comprehension and solidify concepts.

One of the best ways to reinforce text material is through the actual construction of circuits in the laboratory. You will become a better troubleshooter as well if you "learn by doing:" Circuit construction reinforces troubleshooting skills because you will find that many times a simple wiring error or other fault is accidentally introduced in your experiment. Making a circuit work correctly involves analysis of the circuit as well as logical thinking. The sort of thinking that goes into lab work is also simulated on Electronics Workbench/Multisim. Another way to develop skill in troubleshooting is to take the Troubleshooter's Quiz, located at the back of each chapter; answers are provided to check your understanding.

Milestones in Electronics

Before you begin your study of analog circuits, let's briefly look at some of the important developments that led to electronics technology as we have today. The names of many of the early pioneers in electricity and electromagnetics still live on in terms of familiar units and quantities. Names such as Ohm, Ampere, Volta, Farad, Henry, Coulomb, Oersted, and Hertz are some of the better known examples. More widely known names such as Franklin and Edison are also significant in the history of electricity and electronics because of their tremendous contributions.

The Beginning of Electronics. Early experiments with electronics involved electric currents in vacuum tubes. Heinrich Geissler (1814-1879) removed most of the air from a glass tube and found that the tube glowed when there was current through it. Later, Sir William Crookes (1832-1919) found the current in vacuum tubes seemed to consist of particles. Thomas Edison (1847-1931) experimented with carbon filament bulbs with plates and discovered that there was a current from the hot filament to a positively charged plate. He patented the idea but never used it.

Other early experimenters measured the properties of the particles that flowed in vacuum tubes. Sir Joseph Thompson (1856-1940) measured properties of these particles, later called electrons.

Although wireless telegraphic communication dates back to 1844, electronics is basically a 20th century concept that began with the invention of the vacuum tube amplifier. An early vacuum tube that allowed current in only one direction was constructed by John A. Fleming in 1904. Called the Fleming valve, it was the forerunner of vacuum tube diodes. In 1907, Lee deForest added a grid to the vacuum tube. The new device, called the audiotron, could amplify a weak signal. By adding the control element, deForest ushered in the electronics revolution. It was with an improved version of his device that made transcontinental telephone service and radios possible. In 1912, a radio amateur in San Jose, California, was regularly broadcasting music!

In 1921, the secretary of commerce, Herbert Hoover, issued the first license to a broadcast radio station; within two years over 600 licenses were issued. By the end of the 1920s radios were in many homes. A new type of radio, the superheterodyne radio, invented by Edwin Armstrong, solved problems with high-frequency communication. In 1923, Vladimir Zworykin, an American researcher, invented the first television picture tube, and in 1927 Philo T. Farnsworth applied for a patent for a complete television system.

The 1930s saw many developments in radio, including metal tubes, automatic gain control, "midgit sets," directional antennas, and more. Also started in this decade was the development of the first electronic computers. Modern computers trace their origins to the work of John Atanasoff at Iowa State University. Beginning in 1937, he envisioned a binary machine that could do complex mathematical work. By 1939, he and graduate student Clifford Berry had constructed a binary machine called ABC, (for Atanasoff-Berry Computer) that used vacuum tubes for logic and condensers (capacitors) for memory. In 1939, the magnetron, a microwave oscillator, was invented in Britain by Henry Boot and John Randall. In the same year, the klystron microwave tube was invented in America by Russell and Sigurd Varian.

During World War II, electronics developed rapidly. Radar and very...

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