Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics (7th Edition)

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9780205360734: Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics (7th Edition)

Using real-life case studies, Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics helps readers better understand the basic concepts, strategies, and tactics practiced in public relations today. The book presents an engaging and comprehensive overview of the principles, concepts, and methods of public relations. Its systematic approach combines fundamental concepts with numerous real-life case studies, helping readers relate theory to actual practice. Special emphasis is given to ethics, international public relations, and technology's growing impact on the field. Comprehensive and up-to-date, this best-seller shows how public relations plays a vital role in today's global economy and the public discussion of contemporary issues. Designed for anyone interested in public relations, journalism, communication, and business.

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Preface

This sixth edition of Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics takes students into the new century with fresh insights and abundant examples to prepare them for the practice of public relations in a decade full of change and opportunity.

For public relations, the first decade of the new millennium will bring global expansion, tantalizing possibilities for use of the Internet and other new technologies, and increased concern about the ethical aspects of the work. This edition focuses particular attention on these trends.

With pleasure, the three original authors of this textbook, Dr. Dennis L. Wilcox, Phillip H. Ault, and Dr. Warren K. Agee, welcome a new coauthor, Dr. Glen T. Cameron, to their group.

Dr. Cameron holds the Maxine Wilson Gregory Chair in Journalism Research and is director of the Center for Advanced Social Research at the University of Missouri-Columbia. He has received the prestigious Pathfinder Award from the Institute for Public Relations. Dr. Cameron prepared the instructor's manual and other supplementary material for the fifth edition of this textbook. His expertise in research and evaluation broadens the book's ability to show students how to determine the results of their public relations work.

NEW IN THE SIXTH EDITION

Two new series of boxes running through the chapters have been added to emphasize global and ethical aspects of public relations. One series, titled "Focus on Ethics," challenges students to make sound ethical decisions. The other, titled "Global PR," illustrates the worldwide scope of public relations. These boxes supplement Chapters 3 and 15, devoted to "Ethics and Professionalism" and "International Public Relations:"

Two other series of boxes, "PR Casebook" and "PR Insights," have been fully updated. "PR Casebook" provides timely case studies concerning real public relations situations. "PR Insights" highlight interesting data, facts, and principles about public relations.

Up-to-date Coverage

This textbook has always been known for its up-to-date coverage of current events. Two case studies in this edition reinforce this reputation:

The Clinton impeachment trial. Our study examines the massive public relations battle that took place. It looks at the tactics used by the anti-Clinton forces in the Monica Lewinsky scandal and those employed by the White House to fight back. This study appears at the end of Chapter 1. It gives students an early opportunity to see how public relations operates in a situation of grave national significance.

The tobacco battle, in which state and federal governments have fought to make the tobacco industry pay the cost of treating illnesses caused by smoking and to limit its marketing powers. This study appears in Chapter 14, "Politics and Government:"

This edition features the most current and up-to-date public relations case studies of any introductory text. Some of the new cases added in this revision include the following:

Salt Lake City Olympic scandal

High-tech promotion of popular singer Jewell's new book of poetry

Case study of Princess Diana

Top celebrity endorser: Bill Cosby

100`" anniversary of Jell-O

UConn 2000, a $1 billion fundraiser

Contrast in Asian and American pop idols

Northwest Airlines commoration of 50" anniversary of historic US-Japan flight

Prince Charles' new image

Universities' use of online methods to recruit prospective students

The Internet

The explosive growth of the Internet is changing public relations practice. The Internet supplements and, in growing degree, replaces many of the traditional methods of research and delivery of messages. An understanding of these constantly expanding changes is essential.

Most students entering this course have at least basic experience in using the Internet. Therefore, we have designed Chapter 20, "The Internet and Other New Technologies," to:

Examine the Internet as a social and communication force

Describe the research sources it provides

Discuss its role in delivering public relations and marketing messages

Two lists of websites useful for public relations practitioners have been added, a comprehensive one in the Directory of Useful websites, and one of particular value for research in Chapter 6, "Research:" In addition, numerous references to the Internet and other technologies appear throughout the text.

ORGANIZATION OF THE TEXT

The basic structure of the book remains the same, although the order of presentation in Part One has been altered in order to correspond with trends in public relations practice.

The book is divided into five parts:

Part One: Role

Part Two: Process

Part Three: Strategy

Part Four: Application

Part Five- Tactics

Part One: Role

The opening chapter, defining public relations, concludes with a case study of how public relations is used in the high-stakes battle to control the Presidency in the Clinton sex scandal. Chapter 2 describes the evolution of public relations, including a look to the future. Because of extensive concern with the issue of ethical standards, the chapter on "Ethics and Professionalism" appears early in the textbook as Chapter 3. "The Individual in Public Relations" and "Public Relations Departments and Firms" appear as Chapters 4 and 5.

Under this arrangement, students are introduced in logical sequence to the public relations field—its purpose, its history and values, and the career opportunities for individuals wishing to pursue it.

More importantly, however, the text emphasizes the increasingly important issue of diversity, both in public relations personnel and in the audiences public relations reaches. In Chapter 4 we discuss the high percentage of women in the field and the growing number of them who hold toplevel positions. We also note the expanding role of ethnic groups among practitioners.

Part Two: Process

The four chapters in this part form a unified whole, taking students in sequence through the basic steps involved in a public relations program-research, planning the program, communication, and evaluation.

To explain the process, Chapters 6-8 follow the public relations programs of several organizations from conception to evaluation. Among these wide-ranging examples are the Mack Trucks campaign to increase its market share, the Turkish government's promotion to attract tourists, Microsoft's introduction of its Windows 95 software, and a national "election" by M&M Chocolate Candies to select an additional color for its candy bits (the winner: blue).

The challenge of crisis communication in Chapter 8 receives extensive coverage, supported by discussion of numerous cases, both classic and new, and an examination of how various organizations respond to crises.

Part Three: Strategy

This part discusses the fundamental concepts of strategy. First, we explain how public opinion is formed (Chapter 10) and the ways practitioners can use it to direct their objectives. Second, we look at the audience to which programs are directed (Chapter 11). More precisely, this covers innumerable target audiences—each with special qualities and interests-and describes the selection of media suitable for each program. Third, we describe the legal restrictions under which public relations professionals operate (Chapter 12).

Chapter 10 draws particular attention to the identification and use of opinion leaders, and it cites the importance of audience analysis. In Chapter 11, we have added the online media to the methods of reaching an audience and have examined diversity in public relations audiences. We present Bureau of Census statistics on ethnic populations in the United States and emphasize the swift growth of the Hispanic population, an important public relations audience in both English and Spanish languages. In Chapter 13, sexual harassment is included among the legal problems examined.

Part Four: Application

The next logical step is for students to learn the practical ways in which the process and strategies of public relations are applied in major areas of practice. In this part we discuss applications in the corporate, governmental, nonprofit, international, and educational areas, each with special requirements and goals.

Citing the dismissal of employees during corporate "downsizing" as an example, Chapter 13 emphasizes the need for companies to show sensitivity in dealing with customers, employees, communities, and ethnic groups. Building a reputation as a good corporate citizen is a primary public relations mission. Chapter 14, "Politics and Government," examines the impact that lobbying and political action committees have on the operation of government. A discussion of the tobacco bill battle in Congress illustrates these forces at work.

The expansion of international public relations practice, stimulated in part by growth of the Internet's World Wide Web, is the focus of Chapter 15, which explains the opportunities and pr

Review:

"This is the best textbook I have reviewed in recent years. It is written concisely, yet clearly, is on target, and generally covers important issues and trends relating to public relations."—John M. Butler, University of Northern Iowa



"Looking through the text, I can't think of any topics that the authors overlooked. This book is chock-full of graphic support, examples, lists, factoids, case studies, etc. Everything seems fresh and current, which is vital with today's Gen X students and for the topic of public relations."—Linda Hon, University of Florida

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