The way in which knowledge progresses, and especially our scientific knowledge, is by unjustified (and unjustifiable) anticipations, by guesses, by tentative solutions to our problems, by conjectures. These conjectures are controlled by criticism: that is, by attempted refutations, which include severely critical tests. They may survive these tests; but they can never be positively justified: they can neither be established as certainly true nor even as 'probable' (in the sense of the probability calculus). Criticism of our conjectures is of decisive importance: by bringing out our mistakes it makes us understand the difficulties of the problems which we try to solve. This is how we become better acquainted with our problem, and able to propose more mature solutions: the very refutation of a theory - that is, of a tentative solution to our problem - is always a step forward that takes us nearer the truth. And this is how we can learn from our mistakes. As we learn from our mistakes our knowledge grows, even though we may never know - that is, know for certain. Since our knowledge can grow, there can be no reason here for despair of reason. And since we can never know for certain, the can be no authority here for any claim to authority, for conceit over our knowledge, or for smugness.
The essays and lectures of which this book is composed apply this thesis to many topics, ranging from problems of the philosophy and history of the physical and social sciences to historical and political problems.
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Karl Popper (1902-1994). Philosopher, born in Vienna. One of the most influential and controversial thinkers of the twentieth century.Review:
'Popper holds that truth is not manifest, but extremely elusive, he believes that men need above all things, open-mindedness, imagination, and a constant willingness to be corrected.' – Maurice Cranston, Listener
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Book Description ROUTLEDGE & KEGAN PAUL PLC. Paperback. Book Condition: Fair. Bookseller Inventory # G0710065086I5N00
Book Description Routledge and Kegan Paul 1972, 1972. Fourth Edition Revised Trade Paperback. Book, 439 pp Very good condition. ISBN: 0710065086. Bookseller Inventory # J1128221
Book Description ROUTLEDGE & KEGAN PAUL PLC, 1969. Soft cover. Book Condition: As New. 8vo - over 7¾ - 9¾" tall. As new. Bookseller Inventory # 031992
Book Description Soft cover. Book Condition: Good. The growth of scientific knowledge. Paperback published by Routledge & Kegan Paul, reprint 1976. Good condition. ISBN 0 71006508 6. Bookseller Inventory # 12695
Book Description London : Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1972. 4th revised edition. Reprint. Paperback. xiii,431 pp. Index. Condition : very good. ISBN 0710065086 [KEYWORDS: PHILOSOPHY, SCIENCE, philosophy. Bookseller Inventory # 184266
Book Description Routledge & Kegan Paul PLC 1969, 1969. Very good indeed. 1978 reprint. Bookseller Inventory # A161847
Book Description London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, , reprint of 4th revised edition, 1972. paperbound, stiff boards, large 8vo xiii+431 pp. about the way in which knowledge progresses; especially scientific knowledge; STANDARD work; VG condition (unused). Bookseller Inventory # 18486
Book Description Routledge, London, 1981. Paperback. Book Condition: Good. FOURTH EDITION Reprint. Paperback. FOURTH EDITION Reprint. Clean & tight. ONLY A LITTLE UNDERLINING. SPINE IS FLAT BUT COVERS ARE RUBBED AND A LITTLE CREASED.---------- Sent FIRST CLASS next working day or sooner securely boxed in cardboard.462//26. Bookseller Inventory # 004734
Book Description Routledge and Kegan Paul (RKP), London, 1976. Paperback. Book Condition: Good. FOURTH EDITION Reprint. A LITTLE UNDERLINING AND ANNOTATION. SOME COVER CREASING. Sent FIRST CLASS NEXT WORKING DAY OR SOONER securely boxed in cardboard. ref Heg44. Bookseller Inventory # 020052
Book Description Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1972. Soft cover. Book Condition: Good. No Jacket. 4th Edition. 4to - over 9¾ - 12" tall. Previous Owner's Name On Fep; One Light Vertical Crease To Spine. Bookseller Inventory # 011719