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This strategy-packed resource demonstrates how people with challenging behavior can be fully included at home, at school, and in the community. Based on solid research, it offers state-of-the-art intervention techniques and explores the planning and assistance needed to implement nonaversive inclusion strategies. Compelling case studies that illustrate successful integration make this person- and family-centered book essential for everyone involved with people with difficult behavior.
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Lynn Kern Koegel, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, is a clinical professor at the Stanford School of Medicine. She has been active in the development of programs to improve communication in children with autism, including the development of first words, grammatical structures, pragmatics, and social conversation. In addition to her published books and articles in the area of communication and language development, she has developed and published procedures and field manuals in the area of self-management and functional analysis that are used in school districts and by parents throughout the United States and have been translated in other major languages. Dr. Lynn Koegel is the author of Overcoming Autism and Growing Up on the Spectrum with parent Claire LaZebnik, published by Viking/Penguin and available in most bookstores. In addition, she appeared on ABC's hit show “Supernanny” working with a child with autism.
Robert Koegel, Ph.D., is a senior researcher at the Stanford School of Medicine. His research is in the area of autism, specializing in language intervention, family support, and school integration. He has published over 200 articles and papers relating to the treatment of autism, and several books on the treatment of autism and positive behavioral support. He is the Founding Editor of the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. Models of his procedures are used in public schools and in parent education programs throughout the world. He has trained many health care and special education leaders in the United States and abroad.
Glen Dunlap, Ph.D., Research Professor, Division of Applied Research and Educational Support (DARES), Department of Child & Family Studies, Florida Mental Health Institute, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612-3899
Dr. Dunlap is a research professor at the University of South Florida, where he works on several research, training, and demonstration projects in the areas of positive behavior support, child protection, early intervention, developmental disabilities, and family support. He has been involved with individuals with disabilities for more than 35 years and has served as a teacher, administrator, researcher, and university faculty member. Dr. Dunlap has directed numerous research and training projects and has been awarded dozens of federal and state grants to pursue this work. He has authored more than 185 articles and book chapters, coedited four books, and served on 15 editorial boards. Dr. Dunlap was a founding editor of the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions and is the current editor of Topics in Early Childhood Special Education. He moved to Reno, Nevada, in 2005, where he continues to work on research and training projects as a member of the faculty at the University of South Florida.
Dr. Lise Fox is a professor in the Department of Child and Family Studies of the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida and the Co-Director of Florida Center for Inclusive Communities: A University Center for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities (www.flcic.org ). Lise was the Principal Investigator of the Technical Assistance Center for Social Emotional Intervention (www.challengingbehavior.org) funded by the Office of Special Education Programs. Dr. Fox is engaged in research and training efforts related to the implementation of the Pyramid Model in early education and care classrooms, program-wide models of implementation, and positive behavior support. She received the Mary E. McEvoy Service to the Field Award from the Division for Early Childhood.
Richard W. Albin, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Educational and Community Supports in the College of Education at the University of Oregon.
Jacki L. Anderson, Ph.D., received her doctorate from the University of Wisconsin in the areas of communication disorders, child and family studies, and individuals with severe disabilities. She has more than 30 years of experience conducting in-service training activities around the country and has taught for 28 years in the Department of Educational Psychology at California State University East Bay (CSUEB). The education specialist teacher preparation program at CSUEB is a dual-credential program through which students receive both general and special education credentials. Program graduates are known for their excellence in providing effective and innovative educational practices and positive behavior supports. Dr. Anderson's areas of specialization include positive behavior support, teacher training, and inclusive education/life for individuals with severe disabilities. She has been awarded federal funds to pursue these interests via research and training projects; has published the results in textbooks, training manuals, and journal articles; and is on the editorial boards of Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities and Journal of Positive Behavior Intervention. Dr. Anderson is actively involved in a variety of professional organizations and policy-making committees, including as a founding member, vice president, and board member of the Association for Positive Behavior Support (APBS); chair of the executive committee and executive vice president of the International TASH organization; former president and current board member of CAL-TASH; president of the board for Casa Allegra Community Services (providing supported living, integrated work, and microenterprise services for individuals with severe disabilities); and a member of several advisory committees to local school districts.
Stephen Camarata, Ph.D., Professor, Hearing and Speech Sciences, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 1215 21st Avenue South, Suite 8310, Nashville, TN 37232
Stephen Camarata is a nationally and internationally renowned clinician-scientist who studies late-talking children. His research focuses on the assessment and treatment of speech and language disorders in children with disabilities such as autism, Down syndrome, and specific language impairment. He also studies children whose late onset of talking appears to be a natural developmental stage rather than a symptom of a broader developmental disability.
Carol Davis, Ed.D., Associate Professor of Special Education, University of Washington, Box 353600, Seattle, Washington 98195. Dr. Davisâ€™s research interests include examining effective instructional practices that facilitate skill acquisition and promote positive behavior of students with moderate to profound disabilities in inclusive settings, identifying variables that contribute to the use of effective strategies by teachers in these settings, and developing systems to support students with severe disabilities to have access to the general education curriculum within the public school setting.
Kathleen M. Feeley, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Special Education and Literacy, C.W. Post Campus, Long Island University, Brookville, New York 11367
Dr. Feeley is the clinical coordinator for the Certifi cate in Autism and Special Education Program at C.W. Post Campus, Long Island University. As the founder and director of the Center for Community Inclusion at C.W. Post Campus, Dr. Feeley provides training and technical assistance to families, school districts, and adult service agencies as they include individuals with developmental disabilities within their communities. She is also Senior Editor for the journal Down Syndrome Research and Practice and is a member of the international research group Research Action for People with Down Syndrome (RAPID), sponsored by Down Syndrome International.
Dr. Horner is the Alumni-Knight Endowed Professor of Special Education at the University of Oregon, where he directs the Educational and Community Supports research unit. He received his undergraduate degree in psychology from Stanford University, his master's degree in experimental psychology from Washington State University, and his doctorate in special education from the University of Oregon. Dr. Horner's research has focused on developing evidence-based interventions that result in socially significant changes for people with and without disabilities. As co-director with Dr. George Sugai of the Office of Special Education Programs Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, Dr. Horner coordinates research and technical assistance activities with multiple partners across the nation.
During the past 20 years, he has worked directly with schools and school administrators in the development of approaches for implementing school-wide systems of positive behavior support. He has been the editor of the Journal of The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, co-editor of the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, and associate editor for the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and the American Journal on Mental Retardation.
In recognition of his achievements, Dr. Horner has received multiple awards, among them the Society for the Advancement of Behavior Analysis Public Service Behavior Analysis Award (2006), the American Association on Mental Retardation Education Award (2002), the TASH Positive Approaches Award (2000), and the American Psychological Association Fred Keller Educational Research Award (1996).
Susan S. Johnston, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Special Education, University of Utah, 1705 East Campus Center Drive, Room 221, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112
Dr. Johnston conducts research, teaches, and provides technical assistance in the areas of augmentative and alternative communication, early language and literacy intervention, and early childhood special education. During her tenure at the University of Utah, Dr. Johnston served as Associate Dean for Academic Affairs for the College of Education and currently serves as Director of International Initiatives for the College of Education. She received her Master of Arts degree and doctorate in speech-language pathology from the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis.
Ann P. Kaiser, Ph.D., Susan W. Gray Professor of Education and Human Development, Department of Special Education, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37203
Dr. Ann Kaiser is the Susan W. Gray Professor of Education and Human Development at Peabody College of Vanderbilt University. Dr. Kaiser's research focuses on early language interventions for children with developmental disabilities and children at risk due to poverty. She has developed and researched an early communication program to improve the language outcomes for young children with intellectual and developmental disabilities, children with autism, and children at risk due to behavior problems.
Craig H. Kennedy, Ph.D., BCBA, Chair, Special Education Department, and Professor of Special Education and Pediatrics, Box 328, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37203
Dr. Kennedy is Chair of the Special Education Department and Professor of Special Education and Pediatrics at Vanderbilt University and is a Vanderbilt Kennedy Center Investigator. He also is Director of the Vanderbilt Kennedy Behavior Analysis Clinic. Dr. Kennedy received a master of science degree in special education and rehabilitation from the University of Oregon and a doctorate in special education with an emphasis in quantitative sociology from the University of California, Santa Barbara.
Dr. Kennedy has published more than 140 scholarly works, including the book Single-Case Designs for Educational Research (Allyn & Bacon, 2005). He has served as Associate Editor of the Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, Journal of Behavioral Education, and Journal of The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps.
He is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst and Secretary of the Board of Trustees of the Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. He is a member of the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Association for Behavior Analysis, Society for Neuroscience, and TASH. He also serves on the editorial boards of many highly respected peer-reviewed journals.
In 1991, Dr. Kennedy received TASHâ€™s Alice H. Hayden Award, and in 1993, he received the B.F. Skinner New Research Award from the American Psychological Association, Division 25. He was also recognized in 2003 for his research excellence by Peabody College at Vanderbilt University.
Donald Kincaid, Ed.D., Assistant Program Director and Professor, Division of Applied Research and Educational Support (DARES), Department of Child & Family Studies, Florida Mental Health Institute, University of South Florida, 13301 Bruce B. Downs Boulevard, MHC 2113A, Tampa, Florida 33612-3899
Dr. Kincaid is the director of the Florida Positive Behavior Support Project and the Principal Investigator of the Prevent-Teach-Reinforce model. He is also a collaborator and principal investigator for the University of South Florida's subcontract with the Technical Assistance Center for Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. He also serves as the co-principal investigator on Florida's Center for Inclusive Communities, a University Center for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities. His primary interests are in applying positive behavior support approaches for individual students, classrooms, and entire schools. Much of his professional activity involves coordinating systems change efforts at a local, state, and national level to support the implementation of evidence-based practices. Dr. Kincaid also teaches at the university level and serves on a number of editorial and advisory boards in the area of positive behavior support.
Joseph M. Lucyshyn, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, and Special Education, Faculty of Education University of British Columbia.
Joe Reichle, Ph.D., Professor, Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences, 115 Shevlin Hall, 164 Pillsbury Drive Southeast, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesot...Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.:
Excerpted from Positive Behavioral Support: Including People with Difficult Behavior in the Community, edited by Lynn Kern Koegel, Ph.D., Robert L. Koegel, Ph.D., & Glen Dunlap, Ph.D.
Copyright © 1996 by Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. All rights reserved.
PARENT EDUCATION FOR PREVENTION AND REDUCTION OF SEVERE PROBLEM BEHAVIORS
Although the benefits of procedures designs to improves motivation and teach functional communication have had quite a significant effect both on improving language skills and decreasing inappropriate and disrupting behaviors (e.g., Koegel, Koegel, & Suratt, 1992), the need to address the child's independence remains an area warranting attention. Many of the existing parent intervention programs designed to teach communication and other skills to children frequently become overly dependent on their parents, often exhibiting newly learned behaviors only in their presence. To deal with this problem, researchers have concentrated efforts on developing programs to increase independent responding and communication through the use of self-management and child-initiated language learning strategies.
Self-management as a pivotal behavior taught in the context of parents education was developed to reduce the need for constant parental vigilance and to increase the child's independence. Self-management has been shown to be effective with a variety of populations including children without disabilities (Broden, Hall & Mitts, 1971; Drabman, Spitalnic, & O'Leary, 1973), people with mild to moderate mental retardation (Gardner, Cole, Berry, & Nowinski, 1983; Horner & Brigham, 1979), and children with learning disabilities (Dunlap, Dunlap, Koegel, & Koegel, 1991). For children with autism, preliminary research is suggesting that self-management is an effective tool to promote the use of newly learned behaviors in the absence of a trained interventionist (Koegel & Koegel, 19990; Koegel, Koegel, Hurley, & Frea, 1992).
The general steps in a self-management program include the following:
We have been teaching self-management in the context of parent education so that parents can apply the procedures to any behaviors they want to teach their children to perform independently. Following are descriptions of a few self-management programs tat have been implemented in the homes of children with autism with their parents' assistance. Although similar conceptually, self-management procedures from those used for children who are more skilled In this area. Research suggests that pictorial self-management may be most effective for nonverbal children (Pierce & Schreiban, 1994).
We are currently implementing programs in which parents choose target behaviors they desire their child to use, and intervention is implemented in the context of self-management. The parents attend weekly sessions in which teaching self-management is practiced, and then throughout the week they implement the procedures in the community setting they have chosen. For example, one family whose 9-year-old child displayed limited verbal skills chose lunch packing as a target goal. In this particular family, the mother worked in the evenings and felt it would be helpful if her son packed his own lunch. To accomplish this, we drew several pictures including a lunch box, napkin, sandwich, drink, fruit, and vegetable. Lunch items were pre-cut and placed in a plastic refrigerator container. We first showed the child one picture, the lunch box, and taught him to take it out and open it. Next a second picture was added, such as the sandwich, and the child was taught to put all the items in his lunch box after he was given the set of cards. To be sure that he was actually self-monitoring and not simply learning a rote routine, the order of the cards was frequently changed. This ensured that the child was actually responding independently by attending to each particular card. Similar programs using pictorial self-management have been successfully implemented with nonverbal children or children with limited verbal skills to complete dressing in the morning, setting the table, self-care skills in the evening and so forth.
For children with verbal skills, some behaviors lend themselves more readily to event-monitoring procedures (such as those described above), and others are more easily monitored through interval recording, where the child monitors intervals of time in which the behavior is exhibited. For example, Koegel, Koegel, Hurley, and Frea (1992) increased verbal responsivity following an adult's question using writs (golf) counters as a self-monitoring device for the child to monitor verbal response (events). Children were selected to participate in the study based upon their frequent failure to attempt to answer questions from others. The children were taught to answer the questions, then to press the wrist counter to earn a point following each successful interaction. The number of verbal response required by the child to receive a self-chosen reward was gradually increased (beginning with one during the first session and ending with several hundred in later session). It appeared that when the children were consistently involved in verbal interactions, the fluency of overall interaction seemed to make the interchange less difficult for them. The results indicated that, in addition to significantly improving the children's responsivity, the children all demonstrated decreases in untreated disruptive behaviors such as aggression, self-stimulation, and self-injury (apparently used for avoidance or escape purposes from the previously discontinues and confusing verbal interchanges.)
Another study (Koegel & Koegel, 1990) demonstrated the use of an interval system to self-manage self-stimulatory. In this study, the children wore a watch (purchased at a sports store) with a countdown alarm function. Children were taught to record intervals with the absence of self-stimulatory behavior when the alarm chimed. Initial intervals were very short to ensure success and then were gradually and systematically increased. Ultimately, the system was implemented throughout most of the child's day (e.g., school, other community settings), and the data indicated that this procedure was effective in reducing or eliminating self-stimulatory behavior without the continual presence of an intervention provider.
It should be noted that the major goal of teaching self-management in the context of parent education is to provide parents with the general procedures to design a program relevant to any behavior that may be conducive to change using such a technique, Following acquisition of the procedure involved, parents can implement programs to teach their children independence through self-managing many types of behavior in a variety of environments, such as a school, home, the park, and so on.
A second area of focus related to child independence concerns child-initiated strategies to evoke language learning from the environment. Acquisition of lexical items and language learning from the environment. Acquisition of lexical items and language learning in typical children is often a result of their own initiations, which become increasingly sophisticated over the years. Many of these self-initiations are in the form of direct queries, such as asking questions. In fact, a common utterance during a child's acquisition of his or her first vocabulary words is "that?" (pronounced "dat?"), which is often used while pointing to items (Miller, 1981). this verbalization and nonverbal cue can be a specific prompt for a parent to label the item for the child (Halliday, 1975). Questions become increasingly more sophisticated and increase in number, so that by 4 years of age the typically developing child is using a variety of questions including forms that begin with "what", "where," "whose," "who," and "why."
In contrast to typical language developers, children with autism rarely, if ever, ask questions. Differences during language activities were analyzed by Wetherby and Prutting (1984), who discovered that in addition to emitting fewer utterances, children with autism use communication almost exclusively for protesting (e.g., "Stop it") and requesting (e.g., "Want cookie"). Unlike their peers who frequently requested information (e.g., "What's that?") and often labeled items (e.g., pointing to a doll's foot and saying "foot"), The children with autism never requested information, nor did they label items. Thus, these children are at an extreme disadvantage in terms of their ability to verbally gain access to information. To address this problem, we have begun teaching a series of child initiated utterances and have also assessed the effects of these utterances on language acquisition.
The first question we chose for the child to learn, and the earliest developmental form learned by typical children, was "what's that?" To accomplish this, the child's parents prompted him or her to ask the questions. In order to increase the child's motivation to ask the question, initial questions were prompted by hiding highly desired objects in bags, and when the child queried, "What's that?", with regard to the contents of the bag, the parents labeled and then gave the child the highly desire item. Once the child was asking the target question and repeating the label of the item as a high frequency, other less familiar and less desired items were gradually added, and then the bag was removed. The end result was that the children continues to spontaneously ask questions about a variety of unfamiliar items in their various environments. Acquisition of vocabulary was assessed, and the results showed that the children demonstrated rapid gains in vocabulary following implementation of the self-initiated strategy. Furthermore, untreated disruptive behavior spontaneously decreased during sessions, suggestion that the increased language ability was replacing disruptive behavior as a form of communication.
A second question we target was "Where?" and we assessed the children's acquisition of prepositions. To increase the children's motivation to ask the question. their mothers hid desired items in various locations. For example, one child liked gummy bears so his mother hid them in various locations of a tabletop dollhouse. the children were prompted to ask, "Where is it?", then told the location(e.g., the prepositions in, on, under, behind). Prior to receiving the item, the children were required to repeat the preposition, As with the first study, all of the children were successful in learning a variety of prepositions and demonstrated generalized spontaneous use of the target question and prepositions.
The next child-initiated strategy we addressed was teaching the child to ask, "Whose is it?" to employ the possessive morpheme (e.g., "Daddy's") and to learn the possessive pronouns yours and mine. To teach yours and mine, items that were highly desired by the child were selected. The child was then prompted to ask, "Whose is it?" Before the desired item was given to the child, the parent said, "yours," and the child was taught to respond with "mine." Initially, it was necessary to ensure that all of the child's items ("mine") were highly desirable to the child, while all of the parents' items ("yours") were items belonging to the parents but of low interest to the child. The child also was taught to respond with "yours" when the parent said "mine." The possessive morpheme was taught analogously, using items that were highly desired; however, these items were interspersed with item that the child associated with a specific family member. For example, the mothers brought in items such as toys belonging to the child's siblings, or a slipper belonging to the father. Following the question "whose is it?" the mother was responded with "It's Teddy's," or "It's Daddy's." The child was required to repeat the possessive and then was given the item.
While study relating to the child independence is still in its infancy, an accumulating database is suggesting that strategies requiring children to serve as their own intervention providers shift some of the responsibility off of the parents. This may have the additional benefit of reducing some of the stress associated with the increased demands related to raising a child with a disability. In short, the use of child-initiated learning strategies is likely to both accelerate learning and provide for reduced stress levels in the family. As such, this area is expected to gain increased research attention in the future.
Excerpted from Positive Behavioral Support: Including People with Difficult Behavior in the Community, edited by Lynn Kern Koegel, Ph.D., Robert L. Koegel, Ph.D., & Glen Dunlap, Ph.D.
Copyright © 1996 by Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
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