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Comparative Anatomy and Phylogeny of Primate Muscles and Human Evolution

Diogo, Rui/ Wood, Bernard

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ISBN 10: 1578087678 / ISBN 13: 9781578087679
Published by Taylor and Francis, 2012
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Bibliographic Details

Title: Comparative Anatomy and Phylogeny of Primate...

Publisher: Taylor and Francis

Publication Date: 2012

Binding: HRD

Book Condition:New

About this title


This book challenges the assumption that morphological data are inherently unsuitable for phylogeny reconstruction, argues that both molecular and morphological phylogenies should play a major role in systematics, and provides the most comprehensive review of the comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the head, neck, pectoral and upper limb muscles of primates. Chapters 1 and 2 provide an introduction to the main aims and methodology of the book. Chapters 3 and 4 and Appendices I and II present the data obtained from dissections of the head, neck, pectoral and upper limb muscles of representative members of all the major primate groups including modern humans, and compare these data with the information available in the literature. Appendices I and II provide detailed textual (attachments, innervation, function, variations and synonyms) and visual (high quality photographs) information about each muscle for the primate taxa included in the cladistic study of Chapter 3, thus providing the first comprehensive and up to date overview of the comparative anatomy of the head, neck, pectoral and upper limb muscles of primates. The most parsimonious tree obtained from the cladistic analysis of 166 head, neck, pectoral and upper limb muscle characters in 18 primate genera, and in representatives of the Scandentia, Dermoptera and Rodentia, is fully congruent with the evolutionary molecular tree of Primates, thus supporting the idea that muscle characters are particularly useful to infer phylogenies. The combined anatomical materials provided in this book point out that modern humans have fewer head, neck, pectoral and upper limb muscles than most other living primates, but are consistent with the proposal that facial and vocal communication and specialized thumb movements have probably played an important role in recent human evolution. This book will be of interest to primatologists, comparative anatomists, functional morphologists, zoologists, physical anthropologists, and systematicians, as well as to medical students, physicians and researchers interested in understanding the origin, evolution, homology and variations of the muscles of modern humans.

From the Author:

Table of Contents 
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Introduction
Phylogenetic relationships among modern humans and other primates
Reliability of phylogenies and the use of myological data in cladistic analyses
The study of primate muscles
Goals of the present study and structure of the dissertation
Chapter 2. Materials & Methods
Taxonomic nomenclature, biological material, and dissections
Anatomical regions, nomenclature, and tables
Cladistic analyses
Chapter 3. Phylogenetic analyses of primates based on the muscles of the head, neck, pectoral region and upper limb
Results of the cladistic analyses
Synapomorphies of clades and apomorphies of terminal taxa
List of phylogenetic characters
- Mandibular muscles
- Hyoid muscles
- Branchial muscles
- Hypobranchial muscles
- Pectoral muscles
- Arm muscles
- Ventral (volar) forearm muscles
- Hand muscles
- Dorsal forearm muscles
Chapter 4. General remarks on the evolution of the head, neck, pectoral region and upper limb muscles of primates, with notes on their evolution in hominoids
Appendix I. Tables of primate head, neck, pectoral and upper limb muscles
Mandibular muscles of Strepsirrhini and Tarsiiformes (Table A1)
Hyoid muscles of Strepsirrhini and Tarsiiformes (Table A2)
Brachial muscles of Strepsirrhini and Tarsiiformes (Table A3)
Hypobrachial muscles of Strepsirrhini and Tarsiiformes (Table A4)
Pectoral and upper limb muscles of Strepsirrhini and Tarsiiformes (Table A5)
Mandibular muscles of Platyrrhini (Table A6)
Hyoid muscles of Platyrrhini (Table A7)
Brachial muscles of Platyrrhini (Table A8)
Hypobrachial muscles of Platyrrhini (Table A9)
Pectoral and upper limb muscles of Platyrrhini (Table A10)
Mandibular muscles of Cercopithecidae (Table A11)
Hyoid muscles of Cercopithecidae (Table A12)
Brachial muscles of Cercopithecidae (Table A13)
Hypobrachial muscles of Cercopithecidae (Table A14)
Pectoral and upper limb muscles of Cercopithecidae (Table A15)
Mandibular muscles of Hominoidea (Table A16)
Hyoid muscles of Hominoidea (Table A17)
Brachial muscles of Hominoidea (Table A18)
Hypobrachial muscles of Hominoidea (Table A19)
Pectoral and upper limb muscles of Hominoidea (Table A20)
Appendix II. Photographs of primate head, neck, pectoral and upper limb muscles
Lemur catta (Figs. A1-A13)
Propithecus verrauxi (Figs. A14-A23)
Loris tardigradus (Figs. A24-A28)
Nycticebus coucang (Figs. A29-A33)
Tarsius syrichta (Figs. A34-A45)
Pithecia pithecia (Figs. A46-A51)
Aotus nancymaae (Figs. A52-A59)
Callithrix jacchus (Figs. A60-A70)
Saimiri sciureus (Figs. A71-A78)
Colobus guereza (Figs. A79-A87)
Cercopithecus diana (Figs. A88-A93)
Papio anubis (Figs. A94-A99)
Macaca mulatta, Macaca silenus, and Macaca fascicularis (Figs. A100-A114)
Hylobates lar and Hylobates gabriellae (Figs. A115-A145)
Pongo pygmaeus (Figs. A146-A166)
Gorilla gorilla (Figs. A167-A194)
Pan troglodytes (Figs. A195-A243)

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